雅思培训丨雅思大作文开头难不难
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雅思培训丨雅思大作文开头难不难

朗阁海外考试研究中心

俗话说:A good beginning is half done. 的确如此,一个好的开端为后面的成功奠定了坚实的基础,正所谓万事开头难也就是这个道理,在雅思写作中也是如此。那么我们如何在有限的时间内,又快又好的写出一个让阅卷人眼前一亮的开头段呢?相信很多备战的烤鸭都想知道。让你的开头段清新自然、让你的开头段行云流水、让你的开头段大大的吸引考官的眼球是每一个朗阁雅思写作专家追求的梦想。

好多同学拿到大作文的考题,思来想去却无从下笔,有的甚至只会copy the rubric, 把题目原封不动的抄写下来。殊不知,这样考官就会牢牢地抓住你的小辫子,在统计字数时,你所抄写的那一部分就不会被统计在内了。朗阁雅思专家建议各位考生要了解开头段写作的小技巧小秘密,首先就要学会如何充分利用原题改写信息。

Here is an example:

At present it is hard for college graduates to find jobs. Many people claim that college teachers should give priority to practical courses like computer science and business over such traditional ones as history and geography. What do you think?

通过题目分析,我们可以看出题目本身给出了背景信息,也给出了一些人的观点,那么,好!我们就可以顺坡下驴,很巧妙的对题目进行一个转述,轻松的写出一个自然流畅的开头段。那么怎么做呢?首先,我们要找到题目当中哪些词是可以为我们所用,可以被替换掉的?聪明的你一定看到了:at present可以被替换成these days、today 、at the present time、currently 、in the contemporary society / world等等;hard 可以用difficult 两种常用句式find it difficult to do、have difficulties in doing sth. 来实现替换;而college students 可以用一个时间状语从句College students…when they graduate来变换,不仅简洁,而且用到了复合句。所以第一句话可以轻松的改写成:These days, college

students have great difficulties in finding jobs when they graduate. You see, it’s very simple.

接着再往下看,many 是修饰可数名词复数,那么我们可以大展拳脚了,numerous 、countless 、a great/large/vast number of、a great many等等都可以派上用场;动词claim 也比较好找到同义词argue 、contend 、insist 、maintain 、assert 、proclaim 、state 、advocate 、hold the view that都可以,大家只要记住两三个就可以了;最难的是give priority to ,这个词是优先考虑的意思,我们可以用pay more / increasing attention to、lay more stress / emphasis on、attach great importance to等实现替换;那么接下来我们就让这道题目实现一个华丽的转身:

These days there is a growing tendency for college students to have difficulties in finding jobs when they graduate. (事实引入)A large number of people hold the opinion that lack of practical knowledge contributes to this situation. In light of this, they contend that college teachers should lay more stress on practical courses than on traditional ones.(点题) For my part, I am in favor of their viewpoint (个人观点).

是不是看起来非常的流畅自然呢?开头段一定要keep it slim, 保持苗条、拒绝臃肿,这样更能突出你主体段论证的深度。其实上面这个开头段还可以再浓缩一下,变成三句话,你看效果是不是更简洁了呢:

These days there is a growing tendency for college students to have difficulties in finding jobs when they graduate. (事实引入)In light of this, a large number of people contend that college teachers should lay more stress on practical courses than on traditional ones.(点题) For my part, I am in favor of their viewpoint (个人观点).

这是我们实现大作文开头段的第一步,要学会paraphrase (改述),但更大的技巧在于我们要了解雅思大作文写作题目通常涵盖的几种关系:即包含关系,对等关系和转折关系。

一、包含关系

1. among which

有些题目本身会体现出一种包含的关系,就是A 事件有很多后果,而B 是其中之一。这里给各位考生一个句子,以供大家移花接木之用:

(this phenomenon might have quite a few positive/negative effects), among which B could be one of the most remarkable.

下面我们来看一道题:

A recent survey shows that teenagers spend 14 hours watching television programs each week, but only 6 hours with their family members. Some people claim that this has an unfavorable influence on the relationship between them and their family members. What are the causes and what are your solutions?

通过这道题目,我们可以很清楚的分析出A 所代表的事件是青少年每周花大部分的空闲时间看电视,而只有很少的时间和家人在一起,这种现象会产生很多不利的后果,而B 对于家庭成员之间关系的不利影响是其中最显著的,由此点题。那么这道题目我们就可以转述成由among which引导的一个定语从句的形式:

A recent survey indicates young people in their teens spend the vast majority of their spare time watching TV rather than talking with other family members. This phenomenon might bring quite a few negative effects, among which the unfavorable influence on the family relationship could be one of the most remarkable.

2. 在问题—解决引出主题的过程中,我们也可以套用一个大范围——小范围问题或者很多

解决方案——解决方案之一来实现开头段的创作,举例如下:

It is important for children to learn what is right and what is wrong at an early age. Punishment is necessary to help them learn the distinction. To what extent do you agree, and what sort of punishment should be given?

我们通过对于题目的思考,迅速找到A 是教会儿童明辨是非有很多方法,而B (惩罚)就是很流行的一种手段,由此,我们迅速的写出开头段,点到题目:

Children should be instilled what is right and what is wrong at an early age. There are quite a few ways to achieve this end, among which punishment is a very popular means.

通过包含关系among which写出的开头段虽然很有新意,但并不适用于所有的题目,它是有局限性的。因此,我们有必要去了解其他的内在关系。

二、对等关系

如果题目中明确地给出了两方观点,我们可以通过强对比引出主题:先写强对比的事物A, 然后再写主题B 。

1). While/ whereas/ whilst

举个例子来说:

What are your opinions about the advantages and disadvantages of “fast food” and “traditional food”?

题目中明确给出了两个主体“快餐”和“传统食物”利弊的博弈,那么我们只需轻轻一对比,就实现了点题:

Some people hurry to fast food restaurant to save their time, whereas some others wait a relatively long time for traditional food.

2). On the other hand

On the other hand绝对是一个很好用的词组,用好了可以起到锦上添花的作用,但一定切忌它必须是表示相反或相悖的概念。

例2:Nowadays, there are two kinds of school: public and private.

用on the other hand同样可以实现对比,起到点题的作用。

Recently, there is a growing tendency for students to enter private schools. On the other hand, some people still prefer to go to public schools.

其实,雅思写作最牛的是自己去创造背景,它的实现有很多种方法,最美妙的一种方式就是转折法,我们具体来看。

三、转折关系

大多数的题目都是可以抛砖引玉的,即通过转折的方式引出主题B but A。

should have … however / Admittedly … however

举例如下:

A report indicates that nowadays children are becoming more and more lazy, fat and unsociable.

这个题目诠释了这样一个事实,当今的孩子变得越来越lazy, fat and unsociable一些负面的信息,那么我们该如何抛砖引玉,如何点到这个题目上?

The social and economic development should have resulted in a happier life. However, recently an increasing number of parents are concerning their children have become lazy, fat and unsociable.

例2:

Nowadays cheap air travel is increasingly popular in the world. To what extent do you think its advantages outweigh its disadvantages?

这是一个科技类题目,关于探讨打折机票利弊的问题,题点有一个词叫“increasingly popular ”, 那么我们就可以通过对比的方式实现一种转折,点到题目,如下:

There was a time when air travel was only for the wealthy people and out of reach of majority of citizens. But now low-cost flights are available in many countries. I believe this is, overall, a positive development.

例3:

There is not enough respect for elderly people. What are the causes and what are your solutions?

这是一个报告类的题目,分析老年人没有得到足够的尊重的原因并给出解决方案。由题,我们可以想到:尊重老年人是中华民族的传统美德,而现在呢,许多年轻人对待老年人不是很尊重,这样就很自然的点题了,清新而且很流畅!

We tend to agree that being kind to the elderly people is indeed a virtue. However, today not many young people treat seniors respectfully.

通过转折关系写出的开头段不仅富有创意,别人复制不了,也不用担心考官怀疑你用了模板,

而且很富说理性。当然这对于考生的要求也比较高,不过也是最容易拿高分的。

雅思写作究其根源,就是通过语言表达自我思想,只要善于运用上述几种方法,勤加操练,相信大家可以得心应手。此外,朗阁专家还要提醒各位考生,开头段一定要尽量避免语法错误,否则论证再充分、行文再优美的文章也会大打折扣,因为良好的第一印象才是成功的基石。把握雅思写作的每一步,你离梦想的摇篮就不远了!加油!

(本文来自朗阁教育雅思培训考试教研组,供广大考生学习使用,转载请注明出处)