如何写好图表作文
六年级 其它 11894字 246人浏览 孙鹏麟6005

一、 图表作文的分类

二、 图表作文的出题形式

三、 图表作文的写作要点

四、 图表作文练习及其参考范文

图表作文是四(六)级考试中常见,而且被认为是一种较难的作文形式。图表作文就是把非文字信息(通常为各种图表表示的数字信息等)转换成文字信息的一种作文。它要求我们用文字来描述非文字性的图表或对图表显示的关系作解释说明。下面我们先来看一看图表作文的类型。

第一节 图表作文的分类

图表作文可分为两大类:表作文和图作文。

表格(Table )可以使大量数据系统化,便于阅读、比较。表格常由标题(Title )、表头(Boxhead )(表格的第一行)、侧目(Stub )(表格左边的第一列)和主体(Body )部分(表格的其余部分)等部分组成。如下表:

用表格表达的信息具体准确,而且表格中的各项均按一定规律排列。阅读表格时要注意找出表格中各个项目的相互关系,表格中各个项目的变化规律。例如,上面的表格中的数字说明,和1978年相比,1983年大学入学的人数在增加,而小学的入学人数在减少。搞清楚这些变化规律也就读懂了表格的内容。

图作文

图作文又可分为三种:圆形图(饼图)作文、曲线图作文和条状图作文。

(1) 圆形图作文

范例:

pie chart

圆形图(Pie chart)也称为饼状图或圆面分割图。圆形图因为比较形象和直观,各部分空间大小差别容易分辨,所以常用来表示总量和各分量之间的百分比关系。整个圆表示总量,楔形块表示分量。有时圆形图还有数值表,两者结合可把各分量表示得更准确、清楚。例如: This is a pie chart of the average weekly expenditure of a family in Great Britain. As can be see from the chart, the main expenditure of an average British family is spent on food, which accounts for 25% of its total expenditure. The next two significant expending items are transport and housing, which are 15% and 12% respectively. If we take into account clothing and footwear, which makes up 10%, the four essentials of life, that is, food, transport, housing, and clothing and footwear, amount to 62% of the total expenditure.

(2) 曲线图作文

范例:

曲线图(Line graph)也称为线性图或坐标图。曲线图最适合表示两个变量之间关系的发展过程和趋势。一般来说,曲线所呈现的形状比某一点所代表的变量的值更有意义。曲线图有横轴和纵轴。一般先看横轴所代表的数量或时间等,然后再看纵轴所显示的意义。同时必须找出线条所反映的最高或最低的变化。例如:

这个曲线图的横轴代表1990年的不同的月份,纵轴代表交通事故的数量。从交通事故曲线图上可知,前八个月的交通事故的数量有升有降。曲线图在八月份升到了最高点(39),此后一直呈下降的趋势,十二月份降到了最低点(16)。可见,1990年的交通事故的数量总体上呈下降的趋势。

(3) 条形图作文

范例:

条形图(Bar graph)也称为立柱图或圆柱图。条形图由宽度相同但长度不同的条块代表不同的量。当要比较几个项目或量时,常用不同颜色来区分。条形图主要用来表示:1)同一项目在不同时间的量;2)同一时间不同项目的量。阅读条形图时,要先看图例,再看横轴、纵横各代表什么量,每一个刻度所代表的值是多少,最后找出图中各长条所表示的数据及各长条间的相互关系。例如:

左边的条形图的横轴代表时间,纵轴代表期望寿命(Life Expectancy ),这一条形图想要体现的是同一项目(期望寿命)在不同时间的量。右边的条形图的横轴也是代表时间,纵轴是代表婴儿的死亡率(Infant Mortality),这一条形图想要体现的也是同一项目(婴儿的死亡率)在不同时间的量。左边的条形图表明1990年的人均期望寿命比1960年的人均期望寿

命长20岁,而1990年的婴儿死亡率比1960年的婴儿死亡率下降了50%。

第二节 图表作文的出题形式

我们先来看几个四(六)级考试中的图表作文的例子。

例1 题目:Changes in People’s Diet

Study the following table carefully and your composition must be based on the information given in the table. Write three paragraphs to :

1. state the changes in people’s diet (饮食) in the past five years;

2. give possible reasons for the changes;

3. draw your own conclusions.

You should quote as few figures as possible. 例2 题目:Car Accidents Declining in Walton City

Remember that your composition must be written according to the following outline;

1. Rise and fall of the rate of car accidents as indicated by the graph;

2. Possible reason(s) for the decline of car accidents in the city;

3. Your predictions of what will happen this year.

Your composition should be no less than 120 words and you should quote as few figures as

possible.

例3 For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic Health Gain in Developing Countries. Your composition must be no less than 120 words and you should base your composition on the following instructions (given in Chinese):

1. 以下图为依据描述发展中国家的期望寿命(life expectancy )和婴儿死亡率(infant mortality )的变化情况

2. 说明引起变化的各种原因

从以上例子可见,图表作文一般在题目中给出作文的标题和一个或几个统计表格、圆形图、曲线图或条形图,有时还用英文或中文提纲的形式给出提示,要求我们:1)用文字描述图表,客观解释图表中所传递的信息,并找出某种规律或趋势;2)就图表中所反映的某种趋势或问题分析其原因或后果。

第三节 图表作文的写作要领

图表作文着重说明事实,常常是通过对图表中所反映的具体数据的说明、分析、比较,对某种事物或现象的事实或变化情况等加以说明,并提出结论或看法。因此,图表作文常常采用议论文体的写作方法。

写好图表作文,关键在于能否读懂图表中所提供的信息,把握各信息间的联系,用准确流畅的语言把这一信息表达出来,并就这一信息发表自己的看法。

图表作文的写作步骤

写图表作文时,要注意遵循以下步骤:

1)认真分析图表的含义,弄清图表中所含的信息及不同信息间的关系;

2)确定文章的主题思想,构思出文章的基本框架,筛选出能说明图表主题思想的关键数据;

3)编列文章的提纲;

4)根据文章的提纲,将各段的提纲内容扩展成段落,然后将各个段落组成文章,注意段与段之间的衔接与过渡;

5)检查与修改。图表作文的篇章结构

写图表作文时,常采用三段式的谋篇方式。文章的第一段往往分析图表中的数据变化反映什么问题或趋势,概述图表所揭示的信息。第二段分析造成这一问题或趋势的原因。第三段则展望未来的情况或提出解决问题的办法或建议。这一结构可以简单地表述为:

第一段:概述图表反映的主题思想

第二段:分析产生的原因

第三段:展望未来或提出方法或建议

图表作文常用的句型(重要:表示数据的增减变化等) (1)常用的开篇句型(即概述图表内容时常用的表达法) ① According to the table /pie chart/line graph/bar graph, we can see/conclude that … 根据该表/图,

我们可知 …… ② The table/graph reveals (shows/in dicates/illustrates/

represents/points out) that … 该表/图表明…… ③ As we can see from the table …

As can be seen from the line/bar graph …

As is shown (illustrated/indicated) in the pie chart …

如表/图所示,……

(2) 描述增减变化常用的句型 ① Compared with … is still in creased by …20%。 ② The number of … grew/rose from … to …

③ An increase is shown in …; then came a sharp increase of …

④ In … the number remains the same/drops to …

⑤ There was a very slight (small/slow/gradual/sharp/drastic) rise/increase,drop/decrease in 1990. ⑥ There was a ve ry steady

(marked/sharp/rapid/sudden/ dramatic) drop (decrease/decline/fall/reduction) in 1998/ compared with that of last year).

下面我们来看一篇根据例2的题目要求写的范文。

⑴From the graph, we can see that the number of car accidents in Walton city fluctuated during the year of 1990. ⑵The first two months of 1990 showed an increasing trend. ⑶The rate rose to 32 in March but fell to 26 in June. ⑷From June on, the rate was rising again and reached the peak point 39 in August. ⑸After August the rate began to decline remarkably, and eventually dropped to the lowest point 16 at the end of the year. ⑹Therefore, it’s obvious that car accident in Walton city declined in 1990.⑴主题句/概述表格反映的内容⑵—(5)反映交通事故的变化情况

(6)小结:总结表格数据反映的总趋势

⑺There are several reasons for the decline. ⑻First, a new traffic law was made and came into force. ⑼It provided that in summer every car must be air-conditioned. ⑽As a result, the highest rate in August, when humidity and high temperature make drivers impatient and easily lead to car accidents, dropped steadily. ⑾Second, new roads were built and some narrow streets were widened, which quickened the flow of traffic. ⑿Finally, the city administration made great efforts to heighten people’s awareness of observing traffic rules.⑺主题句⑻原因/措施一⑼解释措施一/次要辅助⑽采取措施一后的结果⑾原因/措施二⑿原因/措施三

⒀With all these new measures, I’m sure the rate of car accidents in Walton city will go on falling this year.⒀总结:展望未来的情况

小结:这一讲我主要讲了图表作文的类型、出题形式及其写作要领。

2012年12月真题 图表作文详解

给你一个图表,通过分析图表,以及图表承载信息给出个人评论,今年四级这样考,是破天荒第一次,真题题源来自美国官网的首页,公布了一个失业率影响,博士失业率最高,

硕士其次,为什么两套题,一部分同学考的是学历越高收入越高,另外还有一部分同学考的学历越高失业率越低。写的时候也不难,把第一段图表描述出来,比如说受过博士教育的人,他们的周薪是多少,其它学历的人周薪是多少。另外一部分人写一下不同学历的人,他们失业率的状况,第一段把图表作文的数据写出来,其次第二段解释一下这种现象背后的根源是什么,为什么受教育的人程度越高,收入越高,也可以说根据行业变化导致需求很多高科技的人才,或者高教育背景的人才,也可以说因为这些人在学习上面投入的很多,像博士花很多时间,金钱在教育上面,那么这部分人是应得较高的收入,我们从这两个角度,第二段进行评论一下。第三段无非给一些措施,可以增加教育公平性,使得更多人享有高薪的可能,以及更少的失业率。四级题型无非就是图表作文,来自官网一个图表是两个部分,受教育程度在中间,右边是收入状况,左边是失业率状况,而考试的时候分成两半,各考一半。

材料来源

2012年12月英语四级作文材料来源于美国劳工部网站的一份统计表,本次作文材料截取了其中一部分数据,并对时间做了修改,以下为材料原型,供大家参考。

Education pays...

Education pays in higher earnings and lower unemployment rates

Note: Data are for persons age 25 and over. Earnings are for full-time wage an d salary workers.

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Part I Writing

标准版:

The above clearl y shows us education pays i n 2010.

For instance, the colleg e students with no degree g et paid$712 per week where as those with a Bachelor’s degree can earn $1038.

Several reasons, in my op inion, can be identified to a ccount for this phenomenon. compared with those with comparative ly lower education degree,

people who have received h igher education possess con siderably wider knowledge, more remarkable learning a nd research ability, greater i nnovation and most of all, resourceful social network, all of which a high-income work. Also, the higher one’s education degree is, he will have to show hi s ability. For example, his college, university, or resear ch institute will organize va

rious for them to communicate face to face w ith employers.

This phenomenon tells us that education is a worthy i nvestment. Therefore, substa ntial education investment s hould be strengthened while we, as college students, sh ould study harder to build our country and strive for a better life for ourselves. 高分版:

Education Pays

Judging from the we can see that people’s incom e increases their education levels. Above all ,t he average college graduates earn much more than the t ypical high-school graduates. The fact revealed by these is obvious: a degree does bring distinctive financial benefits to its hol ders. But is it true that a d egree alone can ensure a bri

ght fu ture? I don’t think so because, on the one hand, the financial value of high e ducation depends heavily on what skills graduates can g ain from it instead of the d egree itself. After all, an em ployer only pays for your a bility and performance, not for your certificate. On the other hand, the most valuab le bless high education bring s to graduates is the ability People received more ed

ucation tend to keep lifelong learning habits after their graduation, which would hel p them gain more opportuni ties in their career path. In conclusion, what accoun ts for education pays is not the degree alone, but the gr aduate’s ability and leaning habit.

作文B :

标准版:

Education Pays

The above bar chart clearly shows us education pays in 2010. We see that unemploy ment rate of those with higher education background is much lower than those with lower education degree. For instance, the unemployment rate of college students with no degree is as high as 14.9% while that of those with doctoral degree is only 1.9%.

The followingreason, in my opinion, is the most important one to account for this p henomenon. Compared with those with comparatively lower education degree, people who have received higher education possess considerably wider knowledge, more remarkable lea rning and research ability, greater innovation and most of all, resourceful social network, a ll of which make them more qualified and competent for their task. Thus, they are less li kely to lose their jobs.

This phenomenon tells us that education is a worthy investment. Therefore, educatio n investment should be strengthened while we, as college students, should study harder t o avoid unemployment.

高分版:

Education Pays

As is shown in the table, the unemployment rate decreases steadily as the education level increases. The fact revealed by the statistics is obvious: graduates with a degree are less likely to be unemployed.

What has brought about this effect? I believe there are three main reasons. To begin with, the education level is still the top factor that employers would take into account w

hen selecting job candidates. It is believed that people with a college degree tend to be more intelligent and qualified. In addition, as a result of good learning habit formed durin g college, job hunters with high education background are also more efficient in acquiring and processing job hunting information. Finally, college education equips graduates with s pecialized skills, leading to greater attachment to the company they are employed and hig her possibility to be reemployed even if they leave their previous company.

In conclusion, it is the qualifications, learning habit and specialized skills that high e ducation equip a graduate that make one distinctive in labor market.

【标准版点评】

这次四级作文出了图表题,可能让大家有些意外,但是四六级考察图表作文已经并不是第一次,早在2002年的时候就已经出现过,是图表+提纲的形式,图表反应的是大学生使用计算机的情况。由于备考时大家只是关注近几年的题型,可能没有关注到以往考察过图表作文。

我们在备考作文的时候,一般会从以下几个方面着手准备,如何描述现象、如何分析原因、如何分析影响、如何给出解决措施、如何进行观点论战等。其实,图表作文也是从这几个方面展开,只是将第一段的描述现象改为描述图表即可。可见,无论是考察哪种作文题,我们都可以将它转化为我们熟悉的提纲式。

这次作文题目有两个版本。题目都是Educational Pays (教育回报),一个版本的图表显示的是教育水平越高,收入越高,另一个版本的图表显示的是教育水平越高,失业率越低。

虽然图表描述的具体内容不同,但主题是一致的:教育是值得投资的。写作思路也是

一致的。

两篇范文都是采取三段式的描述方法。

第一段:描述图表。先一句话引出图表总体内容The above bar chart clearly shows u s … 然后具体描述现象We see that…。最后用for instance 引出一些具体数据来例证现象。

第二段:分析原因。先写一个引出原因的句子,然后具体列举一到两个原因即可。由于字数限制,原因不必列太多。

第三段:给出建议。先是总结这个现象This phenomenon tells us that education is a worthy investment. (教育值得投资)。然后是建议国家增大教育投资,以及个人要努力学习。

这种三段式的写作模式容易掌握,在考场中比较实用,建议大家仿写。

【高分版点评】

本次四级作文围绕着同一个话题,education pay (教育回报),出现了两个版本,一个是教育和失业率的关系,另一个是教育和收入的关系。就话题而言,命题难度并不高,选用的是贴近考生实际生活的熟悉话题。形式上则采取图表作文的形式,图表作文在四级考试中较少出现,很多考生可能刚拿到题目会束手无策,但是只要考生仔细阅读题目,就不难发现,除了需要简单描述图表之外,其写作思路和话题作文非常类似。

写好这篇作文,主要抓住三点:

首先,描述图表内容。对于柱状图,抓住横抽和纵轴之间的关系,对数字的变化趋势进行总体描述即可。用词不宜超过总字数的1/3。

其次,要一句话揭示图表背后的隐含意思,引入文章的立意。

最后,文章的立意可以采取两种思路,保守的写法是直接阐释产生现象的原因,如写失业率那篇范文;另一个则是,根据图表上的结果,借题发挥,发表自己的观点,如写收入的那篇范文。