雅思写作评分标准
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雅思写作评分标准

http://www.51ielts.com 时间:2011-10-08 09:53 来源:无忧雅思网

作文是对语言运用能力的综合考察,可以说没有太多具体的、量化的标准,考察方式非常灵活; 但要求又非常的全面,各方面的能力都要展现。雅思作文的评分标准就充分体现了这两点。

雅思作文的第一个评分标准是对内容的评价,即是否切题。这并不是说考生在写作时不能有明确的立场,但是千万不能自说自话。首先,在写作时要由清楚的立论,雅思议论文要求考生要给出自己的立场,并且要前后一致,如果连基本的观点都是前后矛盾的,很难让考官相信你的思维逻辑是清晰的,这样的作文分数自然高不上去。第二,论证总论点的分论点一定要恰当、清楚。在正文中,一般有2-3分论点来支撑自己的论证,很多考生在写作时只是列出了优点和缺点,却忘了将它们和自己的论点结合起来,只有简单的罗列是不能证明什么的,一定要由论证,要让罗列出的条目真正支持自己的观点。第三,最好是在明显的位置给出明确的结论。这样做一方面能帮助考生在写作时理清思路,不至于扯得太远,另一方面有助于让考官在评分时很快找到全文的核心思想,甚至可以在一定程度上引导考官顺着考生的写作思路评定文章,这是非常有利的。

第二个评分标准针对论证过程。这里,最重要的就是论证的过程中逻辑一定要清晰合理。雅思作文考察的不仅仅是语言,还有内容,所以要充分重视这一评分标准。使用一些复杂的、难度大的句子和单词固然有助于展示出对英语的运用能力,获得加分,但是前提在于意思要连贯,要清楚表达自己的意思,如果连这两点都做不到,还不如用简单一点的句子,这样分数反而更高。

词汇也是雅思作文考察的一点。很多考生都存在词汇不足的问题。关于词汇,雅思作文的标准是:对词汇的选择是否恰当? 使用词汇是否准确? 共有5个子项。1. 是否使用一定范围的恰当的词汇和表达法。2. 是否使用一些惯用法和较不常见的表达。3. 是否避免重复用词。

4. 是否使用词汇的正确形式。5. 单词拼写是否准确。从这5个子项可以看出,雅思作文对词汇的考察非常重视对单词的应用能力,而不仅仅只停留在认识就好。这就要求考生改变传统记忆单词的方法,只记不用,而应该在记忆单词的同时要熟知单词的应用方法,这样才能在考试中信手拈来。

雅思写作最后一部分的评分标准是语法,总标准是在句子和结构的选择上是否多样化。语法是否准确。具体要求有:1. 使用简单和复杂句。2. 使用一定数量准确的结构。3. 考官要能理解考生表达的意思4. 标点准确。其实雅思写作对语法的考察也是非常重视实际应用的,从而也就非常灵活,而不像很多中国考试一样死板,但越死板就越有死板的方法去应对,这就是中国学生学习语法的思维。不过,这种思维在雅思作文中时完全行不通的,考生在平常的练习中应该充分利用灵活考察的多样性特点,不要再过分拘泥与各种形式,不要总是死记硬背,真正提高对英语的运用能力。

总之,雅思写作的突出特点就是考察的全面和灵活,注重对语言的实际运用能力。因此,要在写作上拿到高分,绝不是一朝一夕的事情,平时的积累是非常重要的,考生在备考的时候

一定不能太过依赖所谓的模板或者其他比较死板的方法,而要从根本上提高自己对英语的运用能力。

雅思大作文段落扩展有很多方法,比如列举法、举例法、对比法、因果法、让步法、定义法、类比法等,但是在实际运用的时候很多考生的局限性很强,从而限制了分数的进一步提高。在接下来的章节里,无忧雅思网的特聘专家诸瑞琪将会系统地总结目前雅思大作文主体段的主要扩展方式及各自的侧重点:

一、举例法

举例法主要用于通过摆事实引用数据等对论点加以说明,从而增加论证的说服力,同时也是增加段落字数的一种简单的方法。目前的大作文若一个例子都不举的话是很难得到高分的,而且单纯的说理会使得文章显得很“空”,举例子既是一种知识面的展示,更是写作功底的体现。我们在使用举例法时常用的连接词有:for example, for instance, such as, namely, take something for example, etc, 有时候我们还可以用一些句子来拖例子,比如This is true given the example of „ ; 还能用一些副词来接续后面的例子,比如indeed, today, nowadays „等。但是目前比较主流的举例子是用宾语从句引导,比如A recent survey shows that „。以下我们来剖析一下举例法的实际应用。

1. Secondly, air transport is the biggest environment killer. A recent survey conducted by Chicago University shows that the plane air pollution is at least three times as the vehicle. With the increase of greenhouse effect, shouldn ’t we improve our environment protection concept?

2. Firstly, the traffic jam caused by the increasing number of cars is a nightmare for all drivers. A recent survey reveals that Beijing citizens spend averagely about 65 minutes on road every day. Billions of dollars are being wasted on the road in many big cities all over the world, such as London, New York, Paris and Tokyo, but we could do nothing to change it till now.

在这2个主体段的片段中,作者用宾语从句来引导例子,尤其在第一个例子中他还增加了调查问卷的来源,从而增加了一定的权威性和学术性。我们一般可以用一些高等学府,或者科研机构或权威杂志来作为这些研究调查问卷的来源。类似的用法我们还可以来看以下的例子:

The Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution says bits of the country, notably southeast England, are under pressure on waste and water use. But simply aiming to reduce population size will have little impact, it says. This is the final report from the 40-year-old commission, which is being abolished under spending cuts. It is two-year investigation looked at issues such as water supplies, waste, urban pollution and wildlife.

The report, Demographic Change and the Environment, concludes that increasing consumption, the concentration of population in areas that are ill-equipped to supply its needs, and the trend towards single-person households - which increases energy demand - all matter more than the simple size of the UK's population.

3. This is sometimes true given the examples of many gifted athletes who failed to win the finals, such as the football team of the Netherlands which was always regarded as the expected winner of the World Cup but often disappointed the world in the end. Lack team spirit and cohesion lead to the frequent failure of their games. 在这个段落中,我们使用的这个主系表结构引导举例,这个句子的使用规则是将表语作为先行词,然后引导一个定语从句。

4. However, there are significant social, economic, and environmental drawbacks gained by purchasing imported food products. Examples of proposed environmental downsides include increased packaging, increased impact of transportation, higher livestock densities, etc.

在这个段落中,我们使用的举例子结构是前一个结构的“缩写”形式,直接引导一个主谓宾的简单句,对于快速成文也是很有帮助的。

5. In many places, cultural traditions are destroyed because they are being

commercialized for profits. For example, the moment a tourist sets foot on a place of attraction, he is always first welcomed by a crowd of peddlers selling souvenirs that are always fake and overpriced.

6. Furthermore, mass tourism is inevitably damaging the local environment. Take ` wild tourism` as an example, it has resulted in such many serious problems as rivers or lakes being polluted, trees being cut down and animals lost their habitats and went extinct, etc.

一般我们在使用举例法的时候,都是用主谓宾或者主系表的简单句作为基本的引导句型,然后根据后续是否还可以导出一个结论,灵活搭配定语从句或者是分词结构来扩展。

7. The mushroomed fast foods have very negative effects on societies. Since hundred years ago, the traditional foods have become one of the most important symbols of a culture. As we mentioning some countries, we can associate them with their famous foods, Peking duck of China, Sashimi of Japan, and Rome Pizza of Italy. But the international fast foods are occupying every corner of the whole world nowadays. In the near future, we can tell that all cultures will have a same famous food – McDonald ’s. Such a normal kind of food is actually a culture aggression of most countries.

我们在举例子时,还可以用表示时间的连词来引导例子,而不需要很机械式的用for instance 之类的标准式的举例连词。

8. The UK needs to consume less and share people around the country more equally in order to tackle its environmental problems, a report recommends.

9. Academic subjects, such as reading and writing, play a vital role in the education system.

在这个句子里,such as是部分举例,倘若遇到全部举例时,只需将连接词换成namely 即可。

二、因果论述法

因果法其实分为2个层面,一是先因后果,二是先果后因,2者皆属于因果法,此法也是所有论述手法中最主要的一种,也几乎是每篇文章必然会使用的方法。总结了一些因果法常用的连接词如下:therefore, as a result, as a consequence, consequently, because of this, hence, thus, thereby, for this reason, result in, lead to, the cause of, the reason for, as a result of, owing to, due to, because, since, as, result from, boil down to, attribute to 等。因果法尤其在“分析解决型”大作文中是主要的段落论述手法。

1. However, others who claim that users should pay for the cost find their origins in economics. For a variety of different reasons , many people buy larger cars than they need for daily purposes or waste fuel by driving aggressively, which results in both the increasing load of the road and the environmental pollution. If the users are charged to pay for the road geared to the size of the car they use, they might become wise to buy more environmentally friendly cars or choose public transport. Additionally, users might have the right to involve in designing roads in a more pragmatic way as a result of paying for the fees. That way, the financial burden of the government will be eased.

2. Many instances of juvenile delinquency have been attributed to the violent or pornographic content of some TV shows and video games. Now we are confronted with a proliferation of blood and nudity on TV, the computer and the Internet. As a consequence , many youngsters, especially boys, get addicted to such scenes. The increase of juvenile crime rate is symbiotically connected with the rise of adult crime rate in society. For instance, many youths are tempted by evil adults into committing crimes and others who are victims of adult offenses become criminals themselves because of their revenge on society.

在第2个段落中,作者充分利用了因果法的技巧,从导致青少年犯罪的间接原因,最后得出直接原因,这种因果内的原因切换的技巧在分析解决型文章里是非常实用并且高效的。

三、对比论述法

对比论述法是通过对2个以上事物或者人物的对比对论点加以说明,对比法常用的连接词有:likewise, similarly, at the same time, in contrast, nevertheless, still, instead, rather, on the contrary, after all, unlike, while, whilst等,有时候可以用条件状语从句来进行对比,也可以用介宾短语来引导对比。

1. Stability also contributes to the proliferation of fossil fuels in both industrial production and household application. A power station fuelled by coal is able to generate electricity constantly, whilst the production of a wind power station

largely depends on the weather. Similarly , a household solar geyser can not work properly in rainy days when people will have to use gas water heater.

2. Teachers help students focus on what they are learning. If they are learning something by themselves, it is easy to become distracted and go on to other activities. Also , it is tempting to skip parts of the learning process they think they don’t need, which can hinder their ability to really understand the subject. By

comparison , teachers keep their attention on the subject and also approach a subject logically, taking it one step at a time.

在上述的第一个段落中,通过火力发电站和风力发电站的对比,突出化石能源较之可再生能源在能量提供的持续性上的优势。此外,作者继续用了第2个对比来进一步说明这个论点,在2个对比的使用中,请大家特别注意similarly 这个连词的使用,在表示类比的时候我们经常会用到这个连词。而在第二个段落中,作者又通过有老师在和没有老师在学生学习的2种境况做了横向比较,从而突出老师对于学生学习的重要性。

在对比论述法中,还有一种高级的论述方式,叫做“否定假设法”,这种论述手法使用的理论是假设某个条件不存在,会导致什么样的后果,一般用without 来引导,主句中多使用虚拟语气。下面我们来看一个例子:

Many medical treatment and procedures have been developed from experiments on animals. Since animals share many features with humans, scientists use animals to test the safety and effectiveness of newly developed drugs before pilot testing on small groups of patients. Medical teams practice new operating techniques such as transplants on animals. Without animal testing, many procedures or new drugs would be extremely unsafe.

我们在使用这种发展手法时,一般是用在论述的最后,用来最后增强语气,其实我们只要将without 换成with 的话,否定假设法一下子就变成了肯定条件法,大家不妨可以举一反三。

四、列举论述法

列举论述法用于列举观点、理由等,是五段式大作文主体段的主题句以及四段式大作文分论点常用的扩展方式。朗阁海外考试研究中心将列举法常用的连接词总结如下:initially, apart from, in addition to, moreover, furthermore, also, in addition, besides, for one thing„for another, on the other hand等。此外,有时候我们还可以用诸如from a helicopter view来进行大类视角的切换,这种也属于列举,以下我们来看几个例子:

1. Homework has many pluses. Apart from helping students do better on tests, homework helps students review and practice what has been taught in class. Homework helps improve retention and understanding; furthermore , it helps students hone their time management and organizational skills.

请注意在使用apart from 或者in addition to 这2个连词的时候,一般后面接续次要观点,而将主要观点放在主句中。上面的例子中,帮助学生考试考出好成绩和帮助学生复习以及练习上课的知识点都是属于回家作业的优点,但是作者认为后者更重要,因此将前者放在了这个连词后面。这种用法我们在四段式大作文主体段中经常会用到,大家务必引起重视。

2. However, reaching the conclusion that other subjects are no longer important is biased, the obvious benefits of subjects like music and sports for students cannot be denied. For one thing , learning music can cultivate one ’s temperament and foster patience and consistency which are both coveted traits for the students. For another , sports energizes students, hence, they are able to plough into their studies enthusiastically and with confidence.

在使用“一方面... 另一方面”这个连词时,首先要注意的是必须同时使用,不能单独使用; 其次,这个连词一般是用来连接论点的2个不同方面或者2个不同论点的相似方面。

3. From a helicopter view , in countries, particularly developing ones, the economic advances need numerous professional talents in the fields like finance, management, legislation, medicine, thereby putting universities in a pivotal position of nurturing these professionals.

在这段文字中,作者从”微观”,切换到了”宏观”,“宏观”一般指的是社会、国家等大范围,即所谓的大类视角切换,也同属于列举法的范畴,因此我们在用列举法发展段落时,同时要注意理由、观点的类别,在发展的时候要注意层次感,使用的连接词要准确。一般建议在列举时从”小”写到”大”。

列举论述法在分析解决型大作文提供解决方案的主体段中经常会使用,下面我们来看一个例子:

4. I feel that there are three ways that crime can be reduced. Firstly , most developed countries have a large and well-paid police force. However, they spend most of the time in cars. They need to be more visible on the street. Secondly , young people need to be educated about how they can contribute to society. Finally , parents should be more responsible. They have children, yet they do not control their behaviors. Consequently, the children grow up without learning the rules of society.

五、让步法

让步法主要有2个层面,一个是让步段,另一个是局部让步,前者目前使用的较多的是宾语从句引导,而后者可以用让步状语从句或者是转折的连词简单的引导。

5. Those against the use of animal testing claim that it is inhumane to use animal in experiments.I disagree completely. It would be much more inhumane to test new drugs on children or adults. Even if it were possible , it would also take much longer

to see potential effects, because of the length of time we live compared to laboratory animals such as rats or rabbits.

这个让步段中作者还使用了2次让步法,即划线的最后一个句子,这种2次让步法在高分范文中是一个非常实用的论述手法,只要注意用虚拟语气表达即可。

下面对雅思写作词汇中常错词汇进行了分析,大家不妨看一下。

一、such as与for example的混用

我们知道,在表示举例子的时候,such as与like 是完全等同的,如:Wild flowers such as/like orchids and primroses are becoming rare。

但是同学们对于Such as、for example 的把握还是不够准确。我们都知道,后者接句子前者接词语表示举例子。于是就有了下面的写法:

There is a similar word in many languages, such as in French and Italian。

这里的such as 改为for example 为好,因为“in French and Italian ”其实是“there is a similar word in French and Italian”的简化,所以要用for example来引出例证。再来看几个类似的例子:

It is possible to combine computer science with other subjects , for example physics 。

二、assume 及claim 使用不够准确

我们知道, think,assume ,claim 是议论文中常用引出观点的动词。在实际作文中,同学们往往认为几个词的意思是一样的,完全可以代换,所以拿过来就用。甚至还有同学把consider 也拿过来与之混用。我们首先还是从定义来看这几个词的不同:

Think : to have opinion or belief about sth。

翻译为“认为”,通常接宾语从句来表达比较确定的观点。

Assume : to think or accept that sth is true but without having proof of it。 翻译为“假设、假定”,是否有事实依据是不确定的。

Claim : to say sth is true although it has not been proved and other people may not believe it。

翻译为“声称”,用这个词往往意味着不赞同紧跟其后的观点,所以很少用作‘I claim that „ Scientist are claiming a breakthrough in the fight against cancer , but in fact , „。 所以‘It is claimed that ’通常翻译为“有报道称。。。”。和‘it is reported that ’的区别在于后者翻译为“据报道”,往往代表着作者赞同报告的内容,

Consider : to think about sth carefully, especially in order to make a decision 翻译为“考虑”,一般不用作引出观点,看个例子:

We are considering buying a new car。

所以,千万不要在雅思大作文的第一段(观点表达段) 就因为用词把握不准而导致对整篇文章的低分印象。

三、介词使用错误

1、普通介词的误用

一般表现为固定搭配错误,如常把provide sb with sth 用成provide sb sth; be satisfied with 用成be satisfied for等等,虽然这样的错误看似无伤大雅,但在考官眼里就是影响

or more things to show the difference between them。由定义不难看出前者侧重于找到两个或多个事物的异同,而后者则侧重于它们的不同。

看个例句:

It is interesting to compare their situations to ours./It is interesting to contrast their situations to ours。

前一句翻译为:对比一下我们的情况与他们的情况会很有趣。

后一句的翻译为:我们的情况与他们的情况有很大的不同,这很有趣。

再看一个引自OXFORD ADBANCED LEARNER’S DICTIONARY的例子:

There is an obvious contrast between the culture of East and West。

The company lost $7 million in contrast to a profit of $6.2 million a year earlier 。 When you look at their new system, ours seems very old-fashioned by contrast。 不难发现,Compare 翻译为“与。。。相比”而contrast 可译为“明显不同的是。。。”,切记这种翻译方式就不会用错彼此了。