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中国功夫

中国功夫即中国武术,是将技击寓于搏斗和套路运动之中的中国传统体育项目,承载着丰富的中国民族传统文化。其核心思想是儒家的中和养气之说,同时兼容了道家、释家的思想。中国武术源远流长、流派林立、拳种繁多,讲究刚柔并济、内外兼修,蕴含着先哲们对生命和宇宙的参悟。后世所称十八般武艺,主要指:徒手拳艺,如太极拳、形意拳、八卦掌等; 器械功夫,如刀枪剑戟、斧钺

钩叉等。

Chinese Kung Fu

Chinese kung fu, or Chinese martial arts, carries traditional Chinese culture in abundance. It is a traditional Chinese sport which applies the art of attack and defence in combat and the motions engaged with a series of skill and tricks. The core idea of Chinese king fu is derived from the Confucian theory of both “the mean and harmony ” and “cultivating qi ” (otherwise known as nourishing one ’s spirit). Meanwhile, it also includes thoughts of Taoism and Buddhism. Chinese kung fu has a long history, with multi-various sects and many different boxing styles, and emphasizes coupling hardness with softness and internal and external training. It contains the ancient great thinkers ’ pondering of life and the universe. The skills in wielding the 18 kinds of weapons named by the later generations mainly involve the skills of bare-handed boxing, such as shadow boxing (Taijiquan), form and will boxing (Xingyiquan), eight trigram palm (Baguazhang), and the skills of kung fu weaponry, such as the skill of using swords, spears, two-edged swords and halberds, axes, tomahawks, kooks, prongs and so on.

Acupuncture

针灸是中医学的重要组成部分。按照中医的经络理论,针灸疗法主要是通过疏通经络、调和气血,来达到阴阳归于平衡,使脏腑趋于调和之目的。其特点是“内病外治”。主要疗法是用针刺入病人身体的一定穴位,或用艾火的温热刺激烧灼病人的穴位,以达到刺激经络。治疗病痛的目的。针灸以其独特的优势,流传至今并传播到了世界,与中餐、功夫、中药一起被海外誉为中国的“新四大国粹”。

Acupuncture is an important part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In accordance with the “main and collateral channels” theory in TCM, the purpose of acupuncture is to dredge the channel and regulate qi and blood, so as to keep the body’s yin and yang balanced and achieve reconciliation between the internal organs. It features in traditional Chinese medicine that “internal diseases are to be treated with external therapy ”. The main therapy of acupuncture involves using needles to pierce certain acupoints of the patient’s body, or adopting moxibustion to stimulate the patient’s acupoints so as to stimulate the channels and relieve pain. With its unique advantages, acupuncture has been handed down generation after generation and has now spread all over the world. Nowadays, acupuncture, along with Chinese food, kung fu (otherwise known as Chinese martial arts), and traditional Chinese medicine, has been internationally hailed as one of the “four new national treasures.”

Dumplings

饺子是深受中国人民喜爱的传统食品。 相传为古代医圣张仲景发明。饺子的制作是包括: 1) 擀皮、2) 备馅、3) 包馅水煮三个步骤。其特点是皮薄馅嫩,味道鲜美,形状独特,百食不厌。民间有“好吃不过饺子”的俗语。中国人接亲待客、逢年过节都有包饺子吃的习俗,寓意吉利。对崇尚亲情的中国人来说,“更岁交子”吃饺子,更是欢度除夕、辞旧迎新必不可少的内容 .

Dumplings are one of the Chinese people ’s favorite traditional dishes. According to an ancient Chinese legend, dumplings were first made by the medical saint---Zhang Zhongjing. There are three steps involved in making dumplings: 1) make dumpling wrappers out of dumpling flour; 2) prepare the dumpling stuffing; 3) make dumplings and boil them. With thin and elastic dough skin, fresh and tender stuffing, delicious taste, and unique shapes, dumplings are worth eating hundreds of times. There’s an old saying that claims, “Nothing could be more delicious than dumplings”. During the Spring Festival and other holidays, or when treating relatives and friends, Chinese people like to follow the auspicious custom of eating dumplings. To Chinese people who show high reverence for family love, having dumplings at the moment the old year is replaced by the new is an essential part of bidding farewell to the old and ushering in the new year.

旅游业

旅游业是最近二十年来在世界各地迅速发展的一个经济部门,现在正引起中国公众愈来愈大的注意。许多人给报社写信,就促进中国的旅游业的发展提出了种种建议。人们的看法是,发展旅游业将有助于促进中国人民和其他国家人民之间的相互了解、增进友谊,并将有利于文化、科学、技术方面的交流。还会有助于为中国的伟大事业积累资金。

Tourism, a fast developing economic sector over the last two decades in all parts of the world, is now receiving increasing attention among the Chinese public. Many people have written to the press, making

suggestions for the promotion of tourism in China. It is believed that the development of tourism will help promote mutual understanding and friendship between the people of China and other countries, and facilitate exchanges in the field of culture, science and technology. Moreover, it will help accumulate funds for China's great cause.

义务教育

在中国,小学教育需要花费12年的时间来完成,分为小学、初中和高中三个阶段。小学教育持续5年或6年。在初中阶段,大多数学生上3年制初中,极少数上4年制。几乎98%的学生在前一种学校入学。在小学和初中的9年教育属于义务教育。普通高中教育持续3年时间,在整个义务教育阶段,学生要求在每学期未参加期末考试。

In China, primary and secondary education takes 12 years to complete, divided into primary, junior secondary and senior secondary stages. Primary education lasts either five or six years. At junior secondary stage, most have three-year schooling with any part of four-year. Almost 98 percent of students are enrolled in the former schools. The nine-year schooling in primary and junior secondary schools belongs to compulsory education. General senior secondary education lasts for three years. Throughout the whole process of compulsory education, students are required to take final examinations at the end of each semester.

喝茶

在中国,喝茶是一种仪式(ritual),一种精致品味(refined taste) 的展示。人们在饮茶的同时,也领略着(take delight in)品茶的情趣之意。喝茶聊天是中国人中最流行的打发时间的方式。过去,他们是以进有名的茶馆(teahouse)而开始一天的生活的。中国的茶馆相当于法国的咖啡馆和英国的酒馆。人们到这里不仅是为了喝茶。也是为了议论当地的新闻或对政治话题进行激烈的(furious)争论。

Tea drinking in China is a ritual and a demonstration of the refined taste. While drinking tea, people also take delight in the essence of tea itself. Chatting over a pot of tea is a very popular way of pastime among Chinese. In the past, they would start the day with a visit to a well-known teahouse. Chinese teahouses would be the equivalent of French cafes and English pubs. People come here not just for tea, but also to discuss local news or to have furious political debates.

剪纸(paper cutting)

剪纸(paper cutting) 是中国最为流行的传统民间艺术形式之一。 中国剪纸有_千五百多年的历史,在明朝和清朝时期(the Ming and Qing Dynasties)特别流行。人们常用剪纸美化居家环境。特别是在 春节和婚庆期间,剪纸被用来装饰门窗和房间,以增加喜庆的气氛。 剪纸最常用的颜色是红色,象征健康和兴旺。中国剪纸在世界各地 很受欢迎,经常被用作馈赠外国友人的礼物。

Paper cutting is one of China ’s most popular traditional folk arts. Chinese paper cutting has a history of more than 1,500 years. It was widespread particularly during the Ming and Qing Dynasties. People often beautify their homes with paper cuttings. During the Spring Festival and wedding celebrations, in particular, paper cuttings are used to decorate doors ,windows and rooms in order to enhance the joyous atmosphere. The color most frequently used in paper cutting is red, which symbolizes health and prosperity. Chinese paper cutting is very popular around the world and it is often given as a present to foreign friends.

大熊猫(Giant Pandas)

大熊猫(Giant Pandas), 作为中国的国宝,被认为是活化石。中 国大熊猫主要生活在中国中西部和西南部,是目前濒临灭绝的物种。 换句话说,中国大熊猫的故乡是四川。四川成都大熊猫繁育和研究中心(Chengdu Panda Breeding and Research Centre) 大熊猫的家,是市区附近最大的大熊猫基地。

Giant Pandas, regarded as a national treasure of China, are considered a living fossil. Chinese Pandas mainly lives in central-western and southwest China ,and is currently an endangered species. In other words, the hometown of Chinese panda is Sichuan. And Chengdu Panda Breeding and Research Centre in Suchuan — home of the Panda is the biggest panda base near the urban district.

中医(Chinese medicine)

中医(Chinese medicine)是世界医学的遗产。中医有比西方医学 更好的治病方法。因为中医的效果和医治方式,在世界上中医现在 越来越流行了。中医起源于古代,巳经发展了很长一段时间,它收 集了治疗不同疾病的各种方法。传统中医讲究人们身体系统的平衡。 这是说,_旦人的身体系统平衡,疾病就会消失。身体系统的损害 是疾病的根源。

Chinese medicine is a heritage of world medicine. Traditional Chinese medicine has a power to heal people better than the western ones. China medicine now is more and more popular in the world due to its effect and its way to heal people. Originated from the ancient time,the Chinese medicine has developed in a long time and it has collected vari¬ous ways to treat different illness. The traditional Chinese medicine pays

attention to the balance the body system of people. It is said that once the system of people is in balance, the illness will disappear. The damage of the body system is the source of disease.

丝绸之路(the Silk Road)

丝绸之路(the Silk Road) 是历史上连接中国和地中海的一条重要 贸易路线。因为这条路上的丝绸贸易占绝大部分,所以在1877年它 被德国的一位地理学家命名为“丝绸之路”。这条古道从长安开始, 经过河西走廊(the Hexi Corridor), 到达敦煌后分成三条:南部路线, 中部路线和北部路线。这三条路遍布新疆维

吾尔自治区(Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region),然后扩展到巴基斯坦(Pakistan),印度, 甚至罗马。

The Silk Road is a historically important international trade route between China and the Mediterranean. Because silk comprised a large proportion of trade along this road, in 1877, it was named the Silk Road by an eminent German geographer. This ancient road begins at Chang’an, then by way of the Hexi Corridor ,and it reaches Dunhuang, where it divides into three, the Southern Route,Central Route and North¬ern Route. The three routes spread all over the Xinjiang Uygur Autono¬mous Region, and then they extend as far as Pakistan, India and even Rome.

秦始皇陵墓

秦始皇陵墓(the Mausoleum of the Emperor Qin Shihuang)坐落在 陕西省西安市临潼区以东5公里的骊山北部,是中国历史上第一个 皇帝的最终休眠之地。它于公元前246年开始建造, 工程持续了 38年。 它占地面积56.25平方公里,是中国历史上最大的陵墓。

The Mausoleum of the Emperor Qin Shihuang, located at the northern foot of the Lishan Mountain five kilometers east of Lintong District, Xi ’an City, Shanxi Province, is the final resting place of the first emperor in the history of China. Its construction lasted for 38 years, commencing in 246BC. With an area of 56.25 square kilometers, it’s the largest mausoleum in China’s history.

四合院

—个标准的四合院通常由一个位于中心的院子和四侧房屋构成。 门通常漆成红色,并有大的铜门环。通常情况下,全家人住在大院。 北端的正房由长辈居住, 年轻_代生活在两侧的房子, 朝南的房子里, 通常是家庭客厅或书房。

A standard siheyuan usually consists of houses on its four sides with a yard in the center. The gates are usually painted red and have large copper door rings. Usually,a whole family lives in compound. The elder

generation lives in the main house standing at the north end, the younger generations live in the side houses, and the south house is usually the family sitting room or study.

中国的房地产(real estate)

过去的七年,中国的房地产(real estate)业经历了前所未有的高速增长。对于那些月薪较低却渴望在大城市 拥有一套属于自己的体面、舒适的栖身之所的人来说,高昂的房价是他们无法承受的负担。鉴于这一状况,政府近来采取了一系列的措施来防止房价过快增长,包括提高利率及增加房产税等。目前,这些措施在部分城市已经 取得了初步的成效

In the past seven years, China ’s real estate industry has developed in a record high speed. For those who earn less but are eager to own a decent and comfortable place of their own in a big city,the high housing price is a heavy burden that they cannot afford. For this reason, the government has taken a series of measures to prevent the housing price from rising too fast, including raising interest rates and increasing taxes on real estate etc. Presently, these measures have achieved initial effects in some cities.

在传统的中国家庭文化中,同一祖先的几代后裔(descendants) 居住在一起,形成一个大家庭。这种自治(autonomous)家族制度是 中国传统社会的基本单位。中国的孩子们跟随他们父亲的姓。这和 西方文化是一样的。如今在中国,孩子跟父亲的姓或母亲的姓在法 律上都是合法的。除了那些因为结婚加入到家庭中的人以外,人们 的姓氏都是一样的。

In traditional Chinese family culture, descendants of several

generations from the same ancestor lived together and formed a big fam¬ily system. This kind of autonomous family system was the basic unit of traditional Chinese society. Chinese children follow their father’s fam¬ily name. This is the same as western culture. Nowadays in China it is legally fine for a child to follow either father ’s family name or mother ’s family name. Within each family system, of course people except those who joined this family system through marriage all have the same family name.

洛阳是地处中原的河南省西部一个地级市(prefecture-level city)。 它东部舭邻省会郑州,南接南阳,西连三门峡(S_enxia),北邻济源。 在唐代(the Tang Dynasty), 洛阳是东都(Dongdu),东部首都,其人 口最多的时候有100万左右,仅次于当时世界上最大的城市——长安。 在短暂的五代(Five Dynasties) 时期,洛阳是后梁(Later Liang),后唐 (Later Tang)和后晋(Later Jin)的首都,后来。北宋(the North Song Dynasty) 时期,洛阳是西部首都,也是宋朝的建立人赵匡胤的出生地。

Luoyang is a prefecture-level city in western Henan province of Central China. It borders the provincial capital of Zhengzhou to the east, Nanyang to the south, Sanmenxia to the west, and Jiyuan to the north. During the Tang Dynasty, Luoyang was Dongdu (东都),the “Eastern Capital' and at its height had a population of around one million, second only to Chang ,an ,which, at the time ,was the largest city in the world. During the short-lived Five Dynasties, Luoyang was the capital of the Later Liang, Later Tang, and Later Jin. During the North Song Dynasty, Luoyang was the “Western Capital” and birthplace of Zhao Kuangyin, the founder of Song Dynasty.

少林功夫(Shaolin Kungfii)是河南登封少林寺信奉佛教文化的和 尚们练习的_种武术(martial arts)。少林寺,建于北魏(the Northern Wei Dynasty)太和期(Taihe Period) 十九年,是少林功夫发展的文化空间。少林功夫最初是佛教僧侣练习的,他们的职责是保护寺庙。 现在经过1500多年的发展,少林功夫已逐步发展成为一种完美技术 和丰富含义相融合的艺术,在全世界享有声誉。 Shaolin Kungfu is a kind of martial arts practiced by monks under the special Buddhist culture of the Shaolin Temple in Dengfeng City, Henan Province. The Shaolin Temple, built in the Nineteenth year of Taihe Period during the Northern Wei Dynasty, is a cultural space for the development of the Shaolin Kungfu. The Shaolin Kungfii, which is originally practiced by the Buddhist monks whose duties were to protect the temple, has been gradually developed into an art of perfect technology, abundant meanings and high reputation in the whole world after more than 1500 years of development.

八大菜系

中国一个幅员辽阔、资源丰富、历史悠久的多民族国家,每个 民族都有其独特的丰富菜肴。地域菜系在地理环境、气候、文化传 统、民族风俗和其他因素的影响下经过悠久历史的发展已经成形。 最有影响力、最具代表性的是鲁、川、粵、闽、苏、浙、湘、徽菜系, 这八种被人们称为“八大菜系”。中国的“八大菜系”是以多种多样 的烹饪方法区分的,各有其长处。

China is a time-honored multi-ethnics nation with a vast territory and abundant resources, and every ethnic group has its unique abundant dishes. Regional cuisines have taken shape after long-history evolution under the influence of geographical environment, climate, cultural tradition, folk customs and other factors. The most influential and representative ones are Lu, Chuan ,Yue, Min, Su ,Zhe, Xiang and Hui Cuisines, which are commonly known as “Eight Major Cuisines ”. Dishes in the “Eight Major Cuisines ” in China are characterized by diversified cooking skills, with each having its strong points.

中国结

中国结最初是由手工艺人发明的,经过数百年不断的改进,已经成为一种优雅多彩的艺术和工艺。在古代,人们用它来记录事件,但现在主要是用于装饰的目的。“结”在中文里意味这爱情丶婚姻和团聚, 中国结常常作为礼物交换或作用饰品祈求好运和辟邪。这种形式的手

工艺代代相传,现在已经在中国和世界各地越来越受欢迎。

The Chinese knot was originally invented by the craftsmen. After hundreds of years of continuous improvement,has become a kind of elegant and colorful arts and crafts. In ancient times,people use it to record the event,but now used mainly for decorative purposes. The knot means love, marriage and reunion in Chinese ,knot is often used for jewelry as a gift exchange or pray for good luck and ward off evil spirits,This form of handicrafts from generation to generation, it has become increasingly popular in China and around the world.