英语四级考试 图表作文结构突破
初一 记叙文 25438字 471人浏览 hdxcslxx

1 图表作文结构突破

主讲人 林 健

【布局谋篇】

图表作文的基本类型有以下四种:

1. 曲线圈

(Line Chart)

2. 柱状图

(Bar Chart)

3. 饼形图(Pie Chart)

2 4. 统计表格(Table)

3

考研英语的图表型作文多为复合以上四种基本类型的混合体,为区别于四、六级英语考试的图表作文,考研作文一般难度稍有加大。

1997年真题

4

1999年真题

5

6 1.

Such as A, B, C, D , so on and so forth. 2.

Such as A, B, C , D and the like. 3.

Such as A, B, C and D alike. 4.

like A.

一、图表型作文写作步骤

(一) 两分钟审题

考研英语图表型作文题多由提纲式的写作要求和图表两部分构成。1999年真题是出题组尝试新出题模式的代表,作文题中开始出现作文标题:"The Ups and Downs Of Population Growth" 。

两分钟审题时间中,要求考生仔细研究图表或多个图表之间的联系,并联系作文题目和写作要求。审题具体任务:

1. 找准立场:在图表中会明显体现绘图者的意图,即对所涉及的社会问题是持肯定还是否定的态度。这是确定

写作段落基调的准绳。

2. 审查提纲对第二、三段的写作要求:1997年的图表型作文是“摸石头过河”--第一次尝试此类型的出题,因而写作要求上有些许瑕疵:提纲中只有两点要求,令考生在第一段描述图表后,很难安排段落。近年来考研英语图表作文已趋向成熟,提纲中对第二、三段的写作要求多有以下几类,审题时要明确任务,严格按要求写作。

第二段主体段要求:

(1)分析原因(harmfulness//advantages//means)

(2)举例说明

(3)“我的”评论

第三段结尾段要求:

(1)分析利弊

(2)提出建议

(3)预测未来

注意写作要求中如"Possible reason"、“Your suggestion”等措辞,考生不必拘泥于类似的单数形式,在分析原因、提出建议时仍以两到三点为宜。

(二) 捕捉切入点

图表包含信息多,比其他类型的作文更容易使考生“误人歧途”,描述时必须找到切人点,紧扣主题。切入点捕捉方法如下:

1. 结合作文题目、写作要求及图表标题。

以1999年真题为例,三点写作要求如下:

①Effect of the country’s growing human population on its wildlife.

②Possible reason for the effect.

③Your suggestion for wildlife protection.

两幅曲线图的标题分别为:

“U.S.POPULATION GROWTH OVER TIME”

“U.S.SPECIES EXTINCTION OVER TIME”

7 考题要求第一点已暗示:通过揭示人口增长与野生动植物物种之间的关系来描述图表;结合第二幅图的标题可进一步明确写作任务切人点:通过揭示人口增长与野生物种灭绝之间的关系来描述图表。第三点要求对保护野生动植物提出建议,可进一步证明切人点选择的正确性。

2. 观察图表中的“极端数字”。“极端数字”是指最大最小点、最多最少点、最好最差点、基本相同点(或曲线图中的两线或三线交叉点) 以及完全相反点等等。这些极端数字在进行几个事物对比时非常有用,特别是对于描述统计表格颇为有利。以统计表格"Population Increase in China"(P91)为例:

从最大最小数字的对比中可知:在1996年出现了新生人口数和净增人口数的高峰;而2004年,新生人口数与净增人口数均处于最低点。这些数据呈现出逐年递减的趋势。另外,由于各年死亡人口数基本持平,可知趋势为:新生人口数量得到控制;净增人口数量呈递减趋势。

在其他类型的图表中,要敏锐观察到“极端数字”不同的体现形式。如在曲线图和柱状图中体现为最高点和最低点,饼形图中则体现为比例最大和比例最小等。

(三) 写好主题句:抓住总规律,描述总趋势

Despite various interpretations, there are at least three ingredients, I assert, igniting this evil//undesirable//disturbing trend

描述图表段的主题句语言应简洁紧凑,说明该图表描述的内容或体现的主要趋势。再以“Population Increase in China”为例,主题句如下:

As is apparently illustrated in the above table,the number Of newborn population in China has been under control in the past eight years.

以上面的主题句为例,总结写主题句时要注意概括以下几点关键因素:

1. 不要混淆各种图表的称谓:如上例中的"the table...",其他图表如上述的"line chart,bar chart ,pie chart"。

2. 时间跨度:如"in the past 8 years"、“from 1980 to 2000"等。

3. 图表对象:如上例中的"the number Of newborn population in China"。

(四) 转换图表信息

表述完主题句,接下来就要用文字来具体说明图表所提供的信息。在用文字转换图表信息时,考生往往容易陷入以下两个误区:

1. 单纯描述图表信息而忽略具体数据的导人,以"Population crease in China"为例。 请对比:

单纯描述图表:The amount Of births reduced and the number Of people who died also reduced.

结合数据描述图表:From 1996 to 2004, the amount Of births dropped by 5 million per year from 20 to 15 million,while that Of deaths remained constant,with the net gain declining by 5 million every year.(粗体字部分为“减少”的数据,斜体下划线部分为时间数据。)

2. 在导人数据时,大多数考生往往不分主次,全盘托出所有信息,给人信息堆砌、混乱的感觉,以“Population Increase in China”的图表描述部分为例,请看导人数据描述图表的另一个版本:

In 1996,the total number of population increase in China was 1,223 million,that of births was 20 million,that of deaths was 7 million and the net increase was 13 million. In 1998,the total number of population growth in China was 1,247 million,that of births was 19 million,that of deaths was 8 million and the net increase was 11 million. In 2000,„(略) In 2002,„(略)Finally

8 in 2004,„(略)

本例几乎罗列了统计表格中所有的时间和数据,读者通常看后会一头雾水,不知道作者想要通过描过这个图表说明什么问题。

其症结就在于:在引入数据时,没有以趋势总结为基础,数据未分主次,数据之间的关系不明确,如上升、下降、成(两、三、四) 倍(double,triple ,quadruple) 增长等。 导人数据的关键在于:

1. 抓住图表中的极端点:最大最小,最多最少,最好最差,基本相同点,完全相反点。

2. 选择有效数据信息,分主次描述,突出重点,不记流水账。

二、图表型作文其他注意事项

(一) 结构多变

在表示上升、下降的概念时,不能自始至终都只用“something increases(d)/reduces(d)from„ to „”一种句型;在进行图表研究对象的对比时,也不能自始至终使用“A is(was)„,but//conversely B is(was)„”的句型,可以试着用比较体现语言功底的-/ing 分词,-ed 分词的结构或是with...doing /done 独立主格作状语,引出对比事物的变化情况。

(二) 语气客观

由于图表作文十分客观,因此在描述过程中要尽量避免出现“I find that”、“We find that”之类的主观表达,并适当使用一些体现语言客观性的结构,如被动语态和名词性结构。在图表描述段不要主观地推断原因,按指定写作要求,把原因分析放在适当段落。

(三) 时态得当

这一点不容忽视,面对图表数据信息中错综复杂的时间,许多考生都无所适从。选用时态具体建议如下:

1. 对于说明目前情况的图表,多使用一般现在时。

2. 对于预测未来趋势的图表,使用将来时,包括系动词加上不定式来完成,如is /are(to do 。) is to//

3. 对于反映过去某段时间的图表,多使用过去时。

4. 对于反映过去到现在或是将来的变化趋势的图表,除了使用过去时或过去进行时、现在时或现在进行时、将 来时外,还要结合使用现在完成时或过去完成时来体现变化从过去到现在的延续。

简而言之,图表描述部分写得成功与否,就要看在没有图表做参考的情况下,能否让读者从作者的描述中清晰地体会到要说明的问题。

三、分类图表描述要领

(一) 曲线图

曲线图说明某事物或多个事物上升或下降的发展过程和趋势,或表示某事物的变化与另一事物的变化之间的关系。曲线图的具体观察点如下:

9

1. 一般先观察横轴和纵轴各代表的意思。如上图所示,横轴代表的是时间(以季度为考查单位) ;当纵轴代表的意义无法判断时,可参考作文题目、写作要求或曲线的文字说明(不是所有的曲线图都有) ,从上图的标题我们可以推断,纵轴代表的是各种食品的消费量。

2. 如果曲线多的话,要注意区分每一根曲线代表的对象。如上图所示,粗线代表的是肉类,虚线代表的是蔬菜类,而波浪线代表的是牛奶的消费量。

3. 要特别注意曲线的上下起伏,找出曲线变化的“极端数字”:最高点、最低点或是交叉点,以总结趋势。如图所示,有以下几组“极端数字”需要重点考查:

肉类消费量:最高点和与之非常接近的次高点分别出现在第一季度和第四季度;在第二季度跌人低谷,这种状况一直持续到第三季度。趋势总结如下:肉类消费量受季节影响,在气候较温暖的第二、三季度偏低。蔬菜消费量:最低点出现在第一季度,最高点出现在第三季度。趋势总结如下:蔬菜消费量受季节影响,在气候较寒冷的第一、四季度偏低。

牛奶消费量:各季度牛奶消费量基本持平。趋势总结如下:牛奶消费不受季节影响。

4. 注意曲线图体现的是单一变化还是复杂的混合变化。

单一变化包括:持续上升或增加、持续下降或减少以及持平。相对而言,单一变化比较容易把握,考生进行表达时难度也不会太大。

混合变化可能包括以上所有的变化形式,表达时相对比较困难。

上图是比较简单的单一变化的曲线图,描述对象只有一个,即2001年到2004年,大学毕业生就业的变化情况。图中的“极端数字”为:最小值:51%in 2002;最大值:80%in 2001。从中推出毕业生就业变化趋势:2002年急剧下滑,2003年到2005年,开始缓慢回升至2001年的水平。用两句话模式表述如下:

The line chart displays that the employment of college graduates has been improved in the last three years. After a sharp fall in 2002,it has experienced a steady rise from about 51%to 79%since 2003.

例2:

10

范例:

1. 使用的都是熟悉的简单词:“drop ”、“remain ”以及“climb ”。

2. 通过这些简单词的使用总结了三个阶段能源需求的三种变化特点。

3. 句子结构上力求多变,仅表示时间跨度的词组就换了6次。

The line chart reflects the fluctuation of energy demand in China from 1965 to 2005. The demand for energy steadily between 1965 and 1975 from 5 units of energy to approximately 2 units in China. From 1975 until 1985, energy demand appeared to level off and constant at about 2 units of energy. From this time onwards, energy demand dramatically from 2 units of energy in 1985 to 11 in the year of 2005.

对照:

1. 时态混乱,如粗体部分所示,本图宜用过去式。

2. 句子结构单调。

3. 只单纯记录数据,未进行趋势描写。

In 1965, the demand for energy is 5 units of energy. In 1975, the demand was 2. In 1985, it is the same. In 1995, the demand for energy was 7.

(二) 柱状图

柱状图通常用来表示时间上的纵向比较和同一时间段不同事物间的横向比较。注意观察柱状图纵轴和横轴的刻度单位。柱状图的具体观察点如下:

1. 纵向比较:标示某一对象在不同时间段的量的变化,注意时间跨度,并找出“极端数字”。请看下例:

11

Young People’s Suicide

本幅图表是比较简单明了的单一对象在不同时间段的变化情况,横轴为1990年、1995年、2000年以及2005年青少年自杀人数的变化,纵轴为以千为单位的人数。用两句话模式表述如下:

图表描述提到了一个“极端数字”点,并把最大最小值归纳为“增长6倍”,对于图中的中间点并未提及,符合捕捉“极端数字”、突出主次的原则。

As is illu strated in the bar chart, the number of youngster’s suicidal cases has constantly grown from 1990 to 2005. The number has gone up more than 6 times in the 15 years, with committing suicide in 2005.

____(see) from the sky, the house looks like a match-box.

The heroine was lying on the ground,dead, with her face

2. 横向比较:标示同一时间段,几个对象的量的对比,要注意区分每一根柱子代表的对象,并找出能体现几者关系的“极端数字”。请看下例:

与上面纵向比较的图表不同的是,横向比较的图表中横轴标示的是三种人群,结合图表名称,本图表是对2000年,青少年、妇女和老年人自杀人数的横向比较。表述如下:

1. 用outnumber 这个表示数量上差距悬殊的词引出青少年和老年人的自杀人数。

2. 两个状语claiming 和with 不失为地道出彩的表达,让语言简洁洗练。 outnumbering claiming 15,000, and with 3,900.

3. 混合比较:标示几个对象在不同时间段的量的变化,或是几个对象的几个方面的对比,

12 这种复杂情况是考研英语图表作文的考查重点,注意观察同一时间段内各对象的关系;在此基础上,从时间跨度来考查各对象的变化。

范例:

1. 分析三类人群的情况时,分类明晰:妇女与青少年的变化趋势相似,共同总结为成6倍的增长。

2. 三个亮点句型:with + doing 的独立主格结构、see a minor fluctuation 、和experience decline ;其中独立主格结构极能体现句子精炼的特点。

The bar chart reflects the changes in suicidal cases among three groups of people. Women’s and youngsters ’ suicidal cases have constantly grown from 1990 to 2005, with both climbing approximately 6 times in the 15 years. Senior people committing suicide saw//witnessed a minor fluctuation and have experienced a decline by 3,000 since 1995.

对照:

句(1)单纯罗列数字;句(2)、(3)叙述结尾过于仓促。

(1)The number of women who committed suicide in 1990 was 12,000, 31,000 in 1995, 50,000 in 2000 and 71,000 in 2005. (2)Youngsters are less. (3)Senior people are the least.

(三) 饼形图

饼形图的各个扇形的比例代表了相应对象在总体中的比例关系,一般用百分比表示。饼形图的具体观察点:总体与部分的比例关系;部分与部分之间的比例关系。例如:

饼形图相对于其他类型的图表而言较直观,描述起来也相对容易,但它具有一定的迷惑性,如果不结合图表标题,描述起来很容易陷入不分主次的囹圄。

13 范例1.

1. 把饼形图中的学生人群自然分为两

大类:人数增加类和人数减少类。respectively 意为“分别地”,是语言的亮点。

2. 使用with 总结差异。

It is illustrated in the pie charts that graduates’ choices after graduation have experienced great changes from 1994 to 2004. has gone up 3 and 5 times respectively over the ten years, with 对照:

1.I can see句型凸现主观色彩。

2. 句型及用词单一。

3. 停留在单纯描述数字的层次。

4. 句(3)主观推测原因,违背图表描述段需客观描述的原则。 (2) increase from 5% to 15% during the ten-year period from is very tight.

对饼形图的规律总结途径非常之多,如上面的例子,还可这样总结规律:

范例2:

1.though 的插入语用法体现语气的转折,与句(1)中的最高级形成对照。

2. 句(1)中的more students...部分其实是对后两类学生类型的概括。

3. 用词及结构多样化,三类学生用了三种不同的表达法,特别推荐those who亮点句型,使句子紧凑。 though , still made up the largest proportion of 70% in 2004, and more students try different ways to further their study. (2)As is illustrated in the two pie charts, the number of students choosing to study abroad has tripled, and the number of those who pursue master’s degree has gone up 5 times over the ten years from 1994 till 2004.

(四) 统计表格

统计表格的特色在于它能分类详尽地提供大量数据,统计表格的具体观察点如下:

1. 表格的项目分类。

2. 极端数字:以便分析各数据之间的内在联系,发现各项目的变化规律或趋势。

例如:

上面的统计表格比较简单,在观察时,不必横向、纵向捕捉最大值和最小值,只需在GNP(国内生产总值) 和Life Expectancy(期望寿命) 两栏中纵向比较各个国家之间的异同即可,

14 通过观察可知:美国在两项中都独占鳌头,而孟加拉则在两项中都被远远抛在后面。

表格本身直观易懂,重点在于如何结合统计表格的题目,挖掘以上数字之间的关系和规律,即如何总结生活质量与国内生产总值和期望寿命之间的联系:后两者是前者的具体指标。

另外,还需注意表格中的一些重要的小细节,如括号中的"1990:US dollars" ,虽然是一条小小的时间和单位信息,却有利于图表描述。

通过描述最高点、最低点,突出了美国生活水平最高、孟加拉最低的状况。而对于处于中间点的埃及和印度尼西亚则只是简单地一笔带过,体现出主次分明的写作特点。

The above table reveals the living standard of four different countries in 1990 by comparing with the country achieving the highest GNP of 14200 US dollars per head and the longest life expectancy of 75. Comparatively speaking, people living in Bangladesh had the lowest quality of life, with the life expectancy less than nearly half of that in USA and the GNP the lowest among the four countries.

四、复合式图表描述要领

复合式图表是考研作文的出题趋势。此类图表题的难度在于,考生难以把握各分图表之间的关系,从而难以下笔描述或总结。复合式图表的类别明晰后,问题就迎刃而解了。描述复合式图表尤其要注意各分图表的小标题和各自的度量单位,因为这些小细节往往是判断图表类型的关键所在。

(一) 原因结果型

这类图表题本身由两个或多个不同类型的图表构成,各分图表之间存在因果关系,即分图表1的问题是导致分图表2问题的原因。此类题型要求考生把握各幅分图表的关系,用简洁的语言予以描述。1999年真题即为此类型:

图解步骤:

1. 判断类别及关系:原因结果型。

2. 确定主题:人口增长与野生动植物物种之间的关系。虽然作文标题为"The Ups and Downs of Population Growth" ,但两个分图表标题“U.S.POPULATION GROWTH OVER TIME" 和“U.S.SPECIES EXTINCTION OVER TIME"给出暗示:应通过揭示人口增长与野生物种灭绝之间的关系来描述图表。

3. 根据主题安排描述顺序,着手描述。

1. 根据主题,提炼主题句。

2. 根据主题,文字描述的安排顺序为:分图表1 分图表2。

3. 用n serves as a harsh contrast with...将两幅图自然衔接起来。

(主题句)The too fast growth of American population has imposed a great threat on the

15 wildlife species. (分图表1)As can be seen from the line chart, the U.S. population rose dramatically from about one million to nearly 250 million between 1800 and 1990. (分图表2) It serves as a harsh contrast with the wildlife species extinction, which shot up over 7 times from 1700 to 1900.

(二) 综合描述型

这类图表题本身由多个不同类型的图表构成,各分图表与某一主题相关,但无明显因果关系,此类题型要求考生对各幅分图表用简洁的语言进行描述。1997年的真题即为此类型:

图解步骤:

1. 判断类别及关系:综合分析型。

2. 确定主题:有关烟草消费问题。1997年真题为无标题作文,主题的判断只能依赖于小标题。三幅分图表的小标题分别为:“世界烟草总产量”(分图表1) 、“世界吸烟人口比例”(分图表2) 和“世界每年吸烟损失”(分图表3) ,其中分图表3的度量单位分别为“亿美元”和“万人”,从而判断分图表3显示吸烟造成的经济损失及其对人类健康的危害。

3. 根据主题安排描述顺序,着手描述。

1. 根据主题,提炼主题句。

2. 根据主题,文字描述的安排顺序为:分图表2→分图表3→分图表1。

3. 严格区分图表类型:pie chart和bar chart,同时注意单复数概念。

4. 用undoubtedly 以及however ,自然衔接各分图表。

5. 根据写作要求,预测烟草消费的趋势,用could 和被动语态,语言客观而不过激。 (主题句)Tobacco consumption has been one of the serious problems deserving people’s due attention. (分图表2)As is displayed in the pie chart, there are 1.1 billion smokers globally, claiming approximately 20% of the world ’s population. (分图表3)Undoubtedly, smoking has resulted in drastic economic loss of 200 billion US dollars and population loss of 3 million annually. (预测趋势)However, it could be predicted that the amount of tobacco consumption will drop. (分图表1)According to the bar charts, the output of tobacco declined from 14.364 billion pounds in 1994 to 14.2 billion in 1995.

五、图表型作文三块式及各模块功能

作为考研英语图表型作文的尝试,1997年的作文真题从写作要求的出题设计而言存在不成熟的地方,写作任务不够明确,考生难以按写作要求安排段落。而1999年真题则是成熟的图表型作文题的代表,与图画型作文

类似,此类作文题一般附有三段式写作要求。

1997年真题写作要求:

1.Interpret the following pictures.

16 2.Predict the tendency of tobacco consumption and give your reasons.

1999年真题写作要求:

1.Effect of the country’s growing human population on its wildlife.

2.Possible reason for the effect.

3.Your suggestion for wildlife protection.

不论写作要求如何变化,可将各段写作功能明确如下:

对于写作要求不明晰的题型,可按模式合理选择。如1997年真题的写作框架则可选择如下:

1. 开头段:描述图表+预测趋势。

2. 主体段:分析原因。

3. 结尾段:简要总结或提出建议。

17 开头段基本模式:

主体段基本模式:

结尾段基本模式:

18

常用句型

一、图表型作文七大常用句型

描述图表信息时,句子结构要臻于完美,势必要做到以下三点:

1. 语言简洁,句子结构紧凑。

2. 语言要能体现描述的客观性。

3. 句子结构要力求多变,不能自始至终都用“A increases„B increases„C increases„”之类的句型。

英文描述图表的七大常用句型则集中体现了以上三点。在描述图表时,最好能做到综合运用这七种句型。

(一) 主谓句

主谓句是图表型作文最基本的句型,特别适用于描述上升下降、增加减少等趋势。例如:

1.The AIDS victims rose sharply at the end of last century.

2.The cases of juvenile delinquency increased four folds/times to 7,000 in the year 2000.

19 3.The sales volume dropped sharply from the first quarter to the third.

(二) 主谓宾结构

主谓宾结构在图表型作文中,特别适用于主题句的描写。例如:

1.The indicators reveal that the users of mobile phones increased by leaps and bounds from 2003 to 2005.

2.The tobacco consumers account for about 20%of the world’s population.

3.Asia has experienced a steady increase in life expectancy in the past five years thanks to the improvement of medical conditions.

4.China witnessed a constant decline in exports from 1990 to 2002.

(三) “there be”句型

“there be ”句型灵活运用到图表型作文,能够体现作者驾驭语言的能力,体现句型的多样性。例如:

1.There is a sharp rise in Chinese people’s average income in the past decade.

2.There is a similar fiend in Europe.

3.There was a minor fluctuation of graduates’ employment from 2003 to 2005.

(四) 被动句式

作为考研英语的亮点句型,被动句式颇为客观,正好符合图表描述客观性的原则。被动句在图表型作文中更适用于主题句,引出趋势或规律。但是在同一篇习作中,被动句式的使用频率切勿过高,这样会给读者以故意雕砌、矫揉造作之感。例如:

1.From the figures,it can be seen obviously that payment for private cars only accounts for 8%of mid- die-class people’s income.

2.As is illustrated in the table,it could be safely predicted that the number of women being employed in most fields would rise steadily.

(五)with 引导的独立主格结构

“with+sth.+-ing/=ed分词”的结构是考研英语的亮点句型。能起到凝练的作用。可以表示单纯的伴随概念,如例l ,也可引出对比的对象,如例2。

1.The indicators reflect that practical courses enjoy the greatest popularity ,with foreign language courses following closely/coming a close second.

2.With the number of male illiterates remaining steady ,the number of their female counterparts doubled over the ten years.

(六)-ing /-ed 分词短语,独立主格结构

-ing /-ed 分词短语或独立主格结构与with 引导的独立主格结构有异曲同工之妙,在饼形图和统计表格描述中,连续引述几个研究对象时如果用上这种结构,平庸的文字马上就会有亮点。例如:

1.The indicators reflect that practical courses enjoy the greatest popularity,foreign language courses following closely/coming a close second.

2.Students choosing practical courses account for 61%,followed by those who choose foreign language courses told up 20%.and arts courses making up 5.2%.

(七) 比较句型

图表型作文多横向比较和纵向比较,比较句型的使用会让考生进行这方面的描述时游刃有余。例如:

1.The proportion of private car owners in 2002 is twice larger than that in 1992.

2.People in developed countries enjoy a longer life expectancy than those in economically underdeveloped world.

20 二、图表型作文常用句型

考研英语图表型作文在描述总趋势、二者比较、描述上升下降趋势以及最高最低点时都有其特有的句型。为了有助于领会和记忆,对于一些相对较难把握的结构,另附例句。

(一) 描述图表主题预测总趋势的常用句型

1. „is known as one of the serious problems calling for/deserving people’s due attention. 一个严重的值得人们关注的问题是„„

2.The problem of...has aroused/received growing concern/attention.

„„问题已经引起得到越来越多的关注。

3.From the bar charts,it could be clearly seen that。..

从图表来看,可以清晰地发现„„

4.According to the figures/indicators given in the graph„.

根据数据/指数显示,„„

5.The graph/table gives the information that...

图表显示„„

6.The latest survey shows...

最新的调查显示„„

7.The table/line(bar etc.)chart shows/reveals /reflects /illustrates /displays that... 图表显示,揭露/反映脱明/表明„„

8.As can be seen from the table/line(bar etc.)chart,„

正如可以从图表上所看到的一样,„„

9.As is betrayed in the table/line(bar etc.)chart,„

正如图表所说明的,„„

10.As is revealed/illustrated /shows /reflected /displayed ,„

正如所揭示/阐明,显示,反映/表明的一样。„„

11.It can be seen/concluded from the table/line(bar etc.、chart that„

可以从图表中发现,得出一个结论,即„„

12.There is a significant/great difference between...

在„„之间有明显的差别。

13.There is a sharp contrast between...

在„„之间有明显的对比。

14.Indicators in the chart/table reflect that...

该图表中的数据反映„„

15.From the graphs above,it could be safely predicted/foretold that...

从上图中可以准确地预见„„

16.According to the graphs above,a safe prediction could be„

从上图中可以得出一个准确的预言,„„

(二) 用于二者比较,对比的常用句型

1.A is twice/three times as much as B

A 是B 的两倍,3倍的。

2.A is three times longer(faster, etc.)than B

A 比B 长3倍。

3.A is longer(faster,etc.)than B by four times.

A 比B 长(快、等等)4倍。

4.A is thirty(forty,etc.)percent higher than B.

21 A 比B 高30%(40%,等等) 。

5.The number/figure /percentage has doubled/tripled /quadrupled ,compared with„ 与„„相比,数量,数据,百分比已经翻倍了/是„„的3倍,4倍。

The percentage has tripled,compared with that of students choosing elementary courses in 2003.

百分比与2003年选择初级教程的学生,已经翻了3倍。

6.The number/figure /percentage has doubled/tripled /quadrupled, as compared with... 与„„相比,数量,数据/百分比已经翻了一倍,3倍,4倍了。

7.The number/figure /percentage has doubled/tripled /quadrupled ,as against„ 与„„相比,数量,数据,百分比已经翻番/翻了3倍,4倍。

The percentage of real estate owners has quadrupled,as against that of last two decades. 与过去20年相比,房屋拥有率已经翻了3倍。

8.By comparison with B, A„

与B 相比.A „„

9.A increased from„,while /whereas B „

A 增加了„„. 而B „„

10.A increased from„,with B lagging(far)behind„

A 增加了„„,而B(远远) 落后„„

11.A decreased from„,with B rising sharply„

A 减少了„„,而B 急剧增加„„

(三) 表达“上升/下降、增加,减少”的常用句型

1. „increased /rose /grew /climbed from„

„„从„„增加

2....increased /rose /grew threefold/fourfold from...

从„„增加了3倍,4倍

3....increased /rose /grew suddenly/sharply /dramatically from...

从„„急剧增长

4....increased /rose /grew in big leaps/by leaps and bounds from...

从„„跳跃式地增长

5....increased /rose /grew /climbed steadily/gradually from...

从„„稳步/逐步增长

6....increased /rose /grew /climbed slightly from...

从„„稍微增长

7.There is(was)an increase/a rise/an upward trend o£..

有增加的趋势„„

8. „dropped /declined /fell /reduced suddenly/sharply /dramatically to...

„„突然,急剧/出人意料地跌至„„

9....dropped /declined /fell /reduced steadily/gradually to...

„„逐渐降至„„

10....dropped /declined /fell /reduced slightly to...

„„略降至„„

11„.has /have been in a decline from„to „

„„已经从„„下降到„„

12.There is(was)a decrease/a reduction/a decline/a drop trend of囚.

22 „„存在着一个减少/下降/下跌的趋势。

(四) 表达“最高点、最低点及波动”的常用句型

1. „reached a peak of...

„„达到了„„的最高点。

2„.increased steadily,reaching a peak of..

„„稳定地增长,达到„„的最高点。

3....increased steadily,peaking at...

„„稳定地增长,在„„达到最高点。

4....hits a new record high/low of...

„„达到了一个„„新的高点/落入了一个„„新的低谷。

5.The percentage/figure of A reached the bottom of...

„„的百分比/数字达到最低点„„

6.The percentage/figure of A bottoms out„

„„的百分比,数字降到最低点„„

7.There was a minor fluctuation during„

在„„期间出现了一次小的波动。

8.The number of A fluctuates between„and „

„„的数据在„„和„„之间波动。

(五) 表达“比例”的常用句型

1„.stands at„%.with „only taking up„%

„„占„„(百分比) ,„„仅占„„(百分比)

2„.takes a lion’s share(占最大份额) ,accounting for„%.

„„占最大份额,达到„„(百分比)

3. „claims /makes up„%.

„„占„„(百分比)

4„.is „%.with „following closely claiming„%.

„„占„„(百分比) ,而„„占„„(百分比) 左右。

5„.accounts for„%.followed by„claiming „%.

„„占„„(百分比) ,„„占„„(百分比)

6....takes a small slice of...

„„在„„中占一小部分。

真题实例分析

1997年真题

Directions: Your essay should cover all the information provided and meet the requirements below:

1. Interpret the following pictures.

2. Predict the tendency of tobacco consumption and give your reasons.

23

1997年真题是综合描述型的典型代表,请对比结构未达标的写作实例与优化后的初级达标范文(为避免语言上的误导,未达标作文中的语法错误已纠正) :

结构未达标作文:

(1)Nowadays, more and more people have realized the harms of smoking. (2)But many people can’t quit smoking.

开头段:按照一般的评论型作文的开头规律,先把现状评论一番,对于典型的图表型作文,这样做没有必要。

(1)The bar charts show-that the amount of tobacco production reduced from 14.364 billion pounds in 1994 to 14.2 billion in 1995. (2)The pie chart shows there are 1.1 billion smokers among 5.8 billion people. (3)The pictures show that smoking makes us lose 200 billion US dollars and 3 million people each year.

第二段:

1. 有数据引入,但未点明主题,无主题句。

2. 各分图表之间的联系不明确。

3. 句式单一。

(1)We should ask people to stop smoking. (2) And we ourselves must not smoke any more. (3) Moreover, we should prevent the production of tobacco, because smoking is very harmful to people. (4)Smoking will make us weak. (5)It will also affect others.

第三段:

1. 未按写作要求规定预测趋势。

2. 有分析原因的内容,但都集中在讨论吸烟对人身体的危害,不符合写作要求。

(1)We hope people all over the world will stop smoking. (2)We hope the air will be clean again without tobacco.

结尾段:喊口号,不符合英文结尾习惯。

初级结构达标范文:

(1)Smoking is a serious problem. (2)We can see in the bar charts, the tobacco production volume decreased from 14.364 billion pounds in 1994 to 14.2 billion in 1995. (3)It can be predicted that the amount of tobacco consumption will fall, but we cannot be too optimistic. (4)We can also see in the pie chart that about 20% of people on the earth are still smoking. (5)Moreover, smoking does harm to the world economy and human’s health, and there are 200 billion US dollars lost and 3 million people dying each year.

开头段:主要以描述图表为主,句(1)为主题句;句(3)预测趋势、句(2)、(4)、(6)按合理顺序、引入数据描述图表。

(l)There are two reasons for the falling of tobacco consumption. (2)Firstly, more and more

24 people begin to realize the harms of smoking to health. (3)Most smokers am conscious of resisting its lure and succeed in giving it up. (4)Secondly, the public service advertisements promote the campaign against smoking, which involves more people to join in actively.

主体段:

1. 按写作要求分析原因,句(1)为主题句,总起整个段落。

2. 分析原因,层次分明。

(1)To sum up, there will be a promising future with less tobacco consumption ff people are more aware. (2)However, the government should give its due support and take necessary measures in this regard.

结尾段:简要总结,文章结构合理。

万能模板作文

万能模板一:原因结果型

Directions: Your essay should cover these three points:

1. Effect of the country’s growing human population on its wildlife.

2. Possible reason for the effect.

3. Your suggestion for wildlife protection.

The Ups and Downs of Population Growth

把握图表之间的联系,描述语言简练。

按照写作要求分析原因,并附以例证展开。

结尾段按要求提出建议。

As is illustrated in the ______ chart(s), ______ has exerted a(n) ______ effect on the ______. ______ increased by leaps and bounds from about ______ to nearly ______ between ______ and ______, with ______ times more______ from ______to ______. Doubtlessly, with no effective measures taken, ______ will result in ______ in the near future.

______ main ingredients could account for this phenomenon. First and foremost, ______. ______, as a typical example, ______. Furthermore, ______. For instance,

To ______, the matter of great urgency is to ______. What’s more, due efforts should be made to ______. Only in such ways could ______.

参考范文:

As is illustrated in the line charts, the rapid growth of American population has exerted an unfavorable effect on the wildlife species over time. The population of United States increased by

25 leaps and bounds from about one million to nearly 250 million between 1800 and 1990, with 7 times more wildlife species dying out from 1700 to 1900. Doubtlessly, with no effective measures taken, the population explosion will result in a sharper drop of wildlife in the near future.

Two main ingredients could account for this phenomenon. First and foremost, the denser the population, the more living space humans claim, which in mm deprives more wildlife habitat. Deforestation, as a typical example, has made numerous animals homeless. Furthermore , various kinds of pollutions undermine wildlife’s ecological environment. For instance , water pollution has contributed to the extinction of thousands of fishes.

To protect more wildlife from extinction, the matter of great urgency is to keep the birth rate of mankind under control. What’s more, due efforts should be made to set up reserves for wildlife. Only in such ways could humans and wild animals share a harmonious world.

参考范文亮点:

1. 图表描述段:语言简练,图表之间的关系描述明晰。increase by leaps and bounds(大幅增长) 和with 引导的独立主格结构是亮点。

2. 原因分析段:分析原因,层次分明,更有例证支持;用词、句型多变;the more...the more...是句型亮点。

3. 建议段:only 引导的倒装句是亮点。

万能模板二:综合分析型

World Population Aging

1. Interpret the following pictures and predict the tendency.

2. Give your reasons.

3. Draw a natural conclusion.

按合理顺序描述综合分析型图表,按要求预测趋势。

按照写作要求分析原因。

结尾段以提建议的方式简要总结。

______ has been one of the serious proble ms deserving people’s due attention. As is displayed in the ______ chart(s), the number of ______ has tripled (doubled etc.) over the last

26 ______ years. The growth rate of ______ claims ______% annually, whereas the rate of ______ is only ______%. Moreover, from the ______ chart(s), we can see that ______ accounts for ______%, with ______% in ______. It could be safely foretold that ______.

The phenomenon entails ______ factors. Firstly, with ______, as in ______, people will surely ______. Secondly, ______ contributes much to the ______ problem. Thirdly, ______. also counts. More people come to realize the importance of ______.

All in all, steps should be taken to solve the problem of ______. The pressing matter is to ______. ______ could also be taken into consideration.

参考范文:

Population Aging has been one of the serious problems deserving people’s due attention. As is displayed in the bar charts, the number of people over 60 has tripled over the last 50 years . The growth rate of elder population claims 2.38% annually, whereas the rate of global population increase is only 0.87%. Moreover, from the pie chart, we can see that the elderly population in developed countries accounts for 20%, with only 5% in the least developed areas. It could be safely foretold that the senior population will continue to boom and more will be found in the developed world.

The phenomenon entails three factors. Firstly, with the improvement of living standards and medical condition, as in developed countries, people will surely enjoy a longer life expectancy. Secondly , the drop of birth rate, especially in western countries, contributes much to the aging problem . Thirdly, people’s consciousness of maintaining healthy lifestyles also counts. More people come to realize the importance of a balanced diet and outdoor exercises.

All in all, steps should be taken to solve the problem of population aging. The pressing matter is to raise birth rate. Planned immigration could also be taken into consideration.