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1 英语作文的文章的开头、正文、结尾


一篇文章通常可分为三个部分,即开头、正文和结尾。这三个部分安排是否得体,直接影响到文章的质量。 文章的开头一般来说应尽量做到开门见山,用简单明白的叙述引出文章的话题,使读者了解文章要谈论什么,一下于引起读者的兴趣。 作文常见的开头形式大致有以下几种:



如“How I Spent My Vacation”(我怎样度假) 的开头是: I Spent my last vacation happily .

下面是题为"Honesty"(谈诚实) 一文中的开头:

Honesty is one of the best virtues .An honest man is always trusted and respected .On the contrary, one who tells lies is regarded as a "liar",and is looked upon by honest people.


在文章的开头,先把人物、事件和环境交待清楚。如"A Trip to Jinshan" (去金山旅游) 的开头:

The day before yesterday my class went on a bus trip to Jinshan. The bus ride there took three hours. The long trip made us very tired, but the sight of the beautiful sea refreshed us.

3. 回忆性的开头

用回忆的方法来开头。例如"A Trip to the Taishan Mountain"(泰山游) 的开头是: I remember my first trip to the Taishan Mountain as if it were yesterday.


即对要在文章中叙述的人或事先作一个概括性的介绍。如“The Happiness of Reading Books”(读书的快乐) 的开头:

People often say that gold and silver are the most valuable things in the world. But I say that to read books is more valuable than anything else, because books give us knowledge and knowledge gives us power.


即开头利用自然景物或自然环境引出要介绍的事物。如“An Accident ”(一场事故) 的开头是:

It was a rainy and windy morning. The sky was gloomy, the temperature was low, and the street was nearly empty. I was on my way back to school. Suddenly, a speeding car came round the corner.


在文章的一开头就交待写作目的,如通过文章要表扬谁,批评谁,或说明一个什么问题等。如 "Pollution Control" (控制污染) 的开头:

In this article I shall draw your attention to the subject of pollution control.


文章的正文是由若干段落组成的,段落通常由几个或者更多的句子组成,有时候一个句子也能成段。 文章的正文应以文章的开头为线索,具体地叙述、说明或论证文章的主题。文章不论长短,每个段落都必须为主题服务。像说明文和议论

2 文这一类的文章,一个主题还常分成几个小主题,每个小主题要用一个段落处理,另起一段时,应是一层新的意思。每一段的开头,要放一个表示段落小主题的主题句,这样可使文章条理化,易于阅读,便于读者抓住主题。段内的所有句子应围绕主题句的意义加以阐述或论证,为中心思想服务。句子之间应衔结自然,有条不紊,而且还要合乎逻辑,段落中不能出现任何与主题无关的句子;英语写作比较重视主题句的作用,缺少它段落意义就会含糊不清。主题句也可放在段落的中间和末尾等部位,但对初学者来说,以放在段首为好。见下列这篇题为"How to Be a Good Student" (怎样做个好学生) 的文章:

We students are the builders and masters of the country. It is important for us to know how to be a good student.

A good student, I think, should be diligent in his studies. The more he studies, the more he will increase his knowledge. Without enough knowledge, we cannot make great contributions to the modernization of our country.

To take care of one's own body is another important thing for good student to do. Anyone, who hasn't got a strong body, can do nothing for his country, even if he has much knowledge. There was a man, who, when he was student, studied hard but neglected his health. No sooner did he come to serve the country than he died of poor health. From this we may see that to have a strong body is really very important for a student.

Lastly, to cultivate one's own virtue is most important. Virtue is the essence of a noble and good character. It will greatly help one to be useful and his country heart and soul. When learned people go astray, they do more harm than good to society. We should draw lessons from this.





下面这篇题为“Weekend Homework ”(谈周末作业) 的短文,就是用一个段落来论述问题和表达观点的。

Usally Saturday night is the time for students to get back to their desks and do their weekend homework. Six school days are enough for the students who have many other interests. I think weekend homework should not be given. With homework arranged for Saturday night and the whole of Sunday, when can he find time to help around the house, play a game of football or see a good film, or just relax? In fact

3 weekend homework is usually put off until Sunday night. As a result our homework is done very poorly and we achive no results. If there were no homework on weekends, students would go to school on Monday well rested, willing to work. Teachers, don't you agree?





在文章的结尾,把含义较深的话放在末尾,以点明主题,深化主题,起到画龙点睛的效果。如"I Cannot Forget Her" (我忘不了她) 的结尾: After her death, I felt as if something were missing in my life. I was sad over her passing away, but I knew she would not have had any regrets at having given her life for the benefit of the people.


结尾回到文章开头阐明的中心思想或主题句上,达到强调的效果。如“I Love My Home Town”(我爱家乡) 的结尾: I love my home town, and I love its people. They too have changed. They are going all out to do more for the good of our motherland.

3. 自然结尾

随着文章的结束,文章自然而然地结尾。如“Fishing ”(钓鱼) 的结尾: I caught as many as twenty fish in two hours, but my brother caught many more. Tired from fishing, we lay down on the river bank, bathing in the sun. We returned home very late.


用比喻或含蓄的手法不直接点明作者的看法,而是让读者自己去领会和思考。如“A Day of Harvesting”(收割的日子) 的结尾: Evening came before we realized it. We put down our sickles and looked at each other. Our clothes were wet with sweat, but on every face there was a smile.


虽然形式是问句,但意义却是肯定的,并具有特别的强调作用,引起读者深思。如 "Should We Learn to Do Housework?" (我们要不要学做家务?) 的结尾。 Everyone should learn to do housework. Don't you agree, boys and girls?


结尾表示对将来的展望,或期待读者投入行动。如“Let's Go in for Sports”(让我们参加体育运动) 的结尾: As we have said above, sports can be of great value. They not only make people live happily but also help people to learn virtues and do their work bettter. A sound mind is in a sound body. Let's go in for sports.



(1) 不同观点列举型(选择型)

There is a widespread concern over the issue that __作文题目_____. But it is

4 well known that the opinion concerning this hot topic varies from person to person.

A majority of people think that _ 观点一________. In their views there are 2 factors contributing to this attitude as follows: in the first place, ___原因一_______.Furthermore, in the second place, ___原因二_____. So it goes without saying that ___观点一_____.

People, however, differ in their opinions on this matter. Some people hold the idea that ___观点二_______. In their point of view, on the one hand , ___原因一____. On the other hand, __原因二___. Therefore, there is no doubt that ___观点二______.

As far as I am concerned, I firmly support the view that __观点一或二______. It is not only because ________, but also because _________. The more _______, the more


Nowadays, there is a widespread concern over (the issue that)___作文题目______. In fact, there are both advantages and disadvantages in __题目议题_____. Generally speaking, it is widely believed there are several positive aspects as follows. Firstly, ___优点一______. And secondly ___优点二_____.

Just As a popular saying goes, "every coin has two sides", __讨论议题______ is no exception, and in another word, it still has negative aspects. To begin with, ___缺点一______. In addition, ____缺点二______.

To sum up, we should try to bring the advantages of __讨论议题____ into full play, and reduce the disadvantages to the minimum at the same time. In that case, we will definitely make a better use of the ____讨论议题___.

(3) 答题性议论文

Currently, there is a widespread concern over (the issue that)__作文题目_______ .It is really an important concern to every one of us. As a result, we must spare no efforts to take some measures to solve this problem.

As we know that there are many steps which can be taken to undo this problem. First of all, __途径一______. In addition, another way contributing to success of the solving problem is ___途径二_____.

Above all, to solve the problem of _作文题目, we should find a number of various ways. But as far as I am concerned, I would prefer to solve the problem in this way, that is to say, _方法

(4) 谚语警句性议论文

It is well know to us that the proverb: " ___谚语_______" has a profound significance and value not only in our job but also in our study. It means ____谚语的含义_______. The saying can be illustrated through a series of examples as follows. ( also theoretically )

A case in point is ___例子一______. Therefore, it is goes without saying that it is of great of importance to practice the proverb ____谚语_____.

With the rapid development of science and technology in China, an increasing number of people come to realize that it is also of practical use to stick to the saying: ____谚语_____. The more we are aware of the significance of this famous saying, the more benefits we will get in our daily study and job.

5 (5)图表作文的框架

As is shown/indicated/illustrated by the figure/percentage in the table(graph/picture/pie/chart), ___作文题目的议题_____ has been on rise/ decrease (goesup/increases/drops/decreases),significantly/dramatically/steadily rising/decreasing from______ in _______ to ______ in _____. From the sharp/marked decline/ rise in the chart, it goes without saying that ________.

There are at least two good reasons accounting for ______. On the one hand, ________. On the other hand, _______ is due to the fact that ________. In addition, ________ is responsible for _______. Maybe there are some other reasons to show ________. But it is generally believed that the above mentioned reasons are commonly convincing.

As far as I am concerned, I hold the point of view that _______. I am sure my opinion is both sound and well-grounded.

(6)实用性写作(申请信 )

Your address

Month, Date, year

Receiver's address

Dear ...,

I am extremely pleased to hear from you./ to see your advertisement for the position in .... And I would like to write a letter to tell you that.../ I am confident that I am suitable for the kind of the job you are advertising. .../ I feel I am competent to meet the requirements you have listed. On the one hand, .... On the other hand, .... I am enclosing my resume for your kind consideration and reference.

I shall be much obliged if you will offer me a precious opportunity to an interview. I will greatly appreciate a response from you at your earliest convenience/ I am looking forward to your replies at your earliest convenience.

Best regards for your health and success.

Sincerely yours,



1. 开头万能公式一:名人名言



经典句型:A proberb says, “ You are only young once.” (适用于已记住的名言) It goes without saying that we cannot be young forever. (适用于自编名言)

更多经典句型:As everyone knows, No one can deny that…

2. 开头万能公式二:数字统计



According to a recent survey, about 78.9% of the college

6 students wanted to further their study after their graduation.

看起来这个数字文邹邹的,其实都是编造出来的,下面随便几个题目我们都可以这样编造: Honesty 根据最近的一项统计调查显示,大学生向老师请假的理由当中78%都是假的。 Travel by Bike根据最近的一项统计调查显示,85%的人在近距离旅行的时候首选的交通工具是自行车。

Youth 根据最近的一项统计调查显示,在某个大学,学生的课余时间的70%都是在休闲娱乐。 Five-day Work Week Better than Six-day Work?根据最近的一项统计调查显示,98%的人同意每周五天工作日。

更多句型:A recent statistics shows that …


1. 结尾万能公式一:如此结论

说完了,毕竟要归纳一番,相信各位都有这样的经历,领导长篇大论,到最后终于冒出个“总而言之”之类的话,我们马上停止开小差,等待领导说结束语。也就是说,开头很好,也必然要有一个精彩的结尾,让读者眼前一亮,这样,你就可以拿高分了!比如下面的例子: Obviously (此为过渡短语), we can draw the conclusion that good manners arise from politeness and respect for others.如果读者很难“显而见之”,但说无妨,就当读者的眼光太浅罢了! 更多过渡短语:to sum up, in conclusion, in brief, on account of this, thus

更多句型:Thus, it can be concluded that…, Therefore, we can find that…

2. 结尾万能公式二:如此建议


Obviously, it is high time that we took some measures to solve the problem.这里的虚拟语气用得很经典,因为考官本来经常考这个句型,而如果我们自己写出来,你说考官会怎么想呢? 更多句型:Accordingly, I recommend that some measures be taken.

Consequently, to solve the problem, some measures should be taken.


一、 长 短 句原则


As a creature, I eat; as a man, I read. Although one action is to meet the primary need of my body and the other is to satisfy the intellectual need of mind, they are in a way quite similar.



二、 主 题 句原则


7 特别提示:隐藏主体句可是要冒险的!

To begin with, you must work hard at your lessons and be fully prepared before the exam (主题句). Without sufficient preparation, you can hardly expect to answer all the questions correctly.三、 一 二 三原则

领导讲话总是第一部分、第一点、第二点、第三点、第二部分、第一点„ 如此罗嗦。可毕竟还是条理清楚。考官们看文章也必然要通过这些关键性的“标签”来判定你的文章是否结构清楚,条理自然。破解方法很简单,只要把下面任何一组的词汇加入到你的几个要点前就清楚了。

1)first, second, third, last(不推荐,原因:俗)

2)firstly, secondly, thirdly, finally(不推荐,原因:俗)

3)the first, the second, the third, the last(不推荐,原因:俗)

4)in the first place, in the second place, in the third place, lastly(不推荐,原因:俗)

5)to begin with, then, furthermore, finally(强烈推荐)

6)to start with, next, in addition, finally(强烈推荐)

7)first and foremost, besides, last but not least(强烈推荐)

8)most important of all, moreover, finally

9)on the one hand, on the other hand(适用于两点的情况)

10)for one thing, for another thing(适用于两点的情况)


四、 短语优先原则

写作时,尤其是在考试时,如果使用短语,有两个好处:其一、用短语会使文章增加亮点,如果老师们看到你的文章太简单,看不到一个自己不认识的短语,必然会看你低一等。相反,如果发现亮点—精彩的短语,那么你的文章定会得高分了。其二、关键时刻思维短路,只有凑字数,怎么办?用短语是一个办法! 比如:I cannot bear it.可以用短语表达:I cannot put up with it.

I want it.可以用短语表达:I am looking forward to it.这样字数明显增加,表达也更准确。

五、 多实少虚原则

原因很简单,写文章还是应该写一些实际的东西,不要空话连篇。这就要求一定要多用实词,少用虚词。我这里所说的虚词就是指那些比较大的词。比如我们说一个很好的时候,不应该之说nice 这样空洞的词,应该使用一些诸如generous, humorous, interesting, smart, gentle, warm-hearted, hospital 之类的形象词。再比如:走出房间,general 的词是:walk out of the room但是小偷走出房间应该说:slip out of the room

小姐走出房间应该说:sail out of the room

小孩走出房间应该说:dance out of the room

老人走出房间应该说:stagger out of the room


六、 多变句式原则


都希望写下很长的句子,像个老外似的,可就是怕写错,怎么办,最保险的写长句的方法就是这些,可以在任何句子之间加and, 但最好是前后的句子又先后关系或者并列关系。比如说:I enjor music and he is fond of playing guitar.如果是二者

8 并列的,我们可以用一个超级句式:Not only the fur coat is soft, but it is also warm. 其它的短语可以用:besides, furthermore, likewise, moreover


批评某人缺点的时候,我们总习惯先拐弯抹角说说他的优点,然后转入正题,再说缺点,这种方式虽然阴险了点,可毕竟还比较容易让人接受。所以呢,我们说话的时候,只要在要点之前先来点废话,注意二者之间用个专这次就够了。 The car was quite old, yet it was in excellent condition.

The coat was thin, but it was warm.

更多的短语:despite that, still, however, nevertheless, in spite of, despite, notwithstanding

3)因果(so, so, so)


The snow began to fall, so we went home.

更多短语:then, therefore, consequently, accordingly, hence, as a result, for this reason, so that



举例:This is what I can do.

Whether he can go with us or not is not sure.

同样主语、宾语、表语可以改成如下的复杂成分:When to go, Why he goes away…



The man whom you met yesterday is a friend of mine.

I don’t enjoy that book you are reading.

Mr liu, our oral English teacher, is easy-going.

其实很简单,同位语--要解释的东西删除后不影响整个句子的构成;定语从句—借用之前的关键词并且用其重新组成一个句子插入其中,但是whom or that 关键词必须要紧跟在先行词之前。



Whether your tastes are modern or traditional, sophisticated or simple, there is plenty in London for you.

Nowadays, energy can be obtained through various sources such as oil, coal, natural gas, solar heat, the wind and ocean tides.

9 We have got to study hard, to enlarge our scope of knowledge, to realize our potentials and to pay for our life. (气势恢宏)


七、 挑战极限原则



The weather being fine, a large number of people went to climb the Western Hills. Africa is the second largest continent, its size being about three times that of China. 如果您可一些出这样的句子,不得高分才怪!




In order to attract more customers, advertisers have adopted every possible stimulative factor in making ads, such as sound, light, colours, cartoon films and human performance.

For instance, to advertise a certain food, advertisers will ask an actor or actress to sit at a table and devour the seemingly delicious food while they fime him or her. 更多句型:

To take … as an example, One example is…, Another example is…, for example


方法:写完一个要点,比较与之相似的;又写完一个要点,再比较与之相反的; 世界上没有同样的指纹,没有相同的树叶,文章亦同,只有通过比较,你才会发现二者的相同点(through comparison )和不同点(through contrast )。下面是一些短语:

相似的比较:in comparison, likewise, similarly, in the same manner

相反的比较:on the other hand, conversely, whereas, while, instead, nevertheless, in contrast, on the contrary, compared with …,



实际就是重复重复再重复!下面的句子实际上就三个字 I love you!

I am enthusiastic about you. That is to say, I love you.

I am wild about you. In other words, I have fallen in love with you.

或者上面我们举过的例子:I cannot bear it.可以用短语表达I cannot put up with it. 因此可以这样说:I cannot bear it. That is to say, I cannot put up with it or I am fed up with it.

更多短语:in more difficult language, in simpler words, put it more simply