托福独立写作技巧方法讲解
初二 记叙文 20212字 862人浏览 qyc5000

独立部分作文笔记(原创)

一.TWE 评分过程

(1)不必在意的四件事——破除原有误解

①不必在意英语和美语的差异;

②不必在意口语与书面语的差异;

③不必在意任何文化差异;

④不必在意语言是否地道。

(2)6 分评分标准

Readers should focus on what the examinee does well.

Scores6 Demonstrates clear competence in writing on both the rhetorical

and syntactic levels, though it may have occasional errors.

A paper in this category

––effectively addresses the writing task

––is well organized and well developed

––uses clearly appropriate details to support a thesis or illustrate ideas

––displays consistent facility in the use of language

––demonstrates syntactic variety and appropriate word choice

二.评分标准的分析

评分标准一:effectively addresses the writing task

(1)简单说明文(Explanation )

(I )Background Information,Thesis Statement——1 段

(II )Supporting ——2-3 段。例:

21. In general, people are living longer now. Discuss the causes of thisphenomenon. Use specific reasons and details to develop your essay.

Supporting :A 、食物改善;B 、技术进步;C 、社会和经济环境的稳定。

Topic Sentence:Among various factors that have made people live longer are A, B and C.

①A is very important factor.

粗粮、细粮,肉食,牛奶,水质(自来水、矿泉水)……

②Equally important is B.

医疗技术使很多过去的绝症轻易获得治疗,如百日咳,肺结核等。

③Matching A and B is another essential factor, C.

战争,社会动荡,经济动荡都会影响人们的寿命。

主题句的写法:

①尽量不要只使用抽象名词;

②尽量暗示文章将来结构,主题句写好了可以没有结论句;

③主题句应该值得解释、值得证明。

(2)对比、对照(Compare & Contrast)

(I )Background Information

(II )Compare & Contrast

√ √√ A √√×OrA√B √× ×B × ××√B×A ×

(III )Topic Sentence / Conclusion

(3)立论文(Argumentation )

①本身有争议;

③不能用right/wrong 来修饰,而是who is more reasonable.

例:

41. Some people think that human needs for farmland, housing, and industry aremore important than saving land for endangered animals. Do you agree ordisagree with this point of view? Why or why not? Use specific reasons andexamples to support your answer.

立场:反对盲目地保护濒临灭绝动物。

(I )Background Information

(II )Supporting ×××

(III )Rebuttal 驳证——选择一个对立立场辩驳(最重要的部分)

beautiful ?

necessary ?

money ?

(IV )Topic Sentence

审题立论的注意事项:

①以读者为导向;②想好了再写;③说服读者而不仅是表达;④顺序很重要;⑤结论不重要。 评分标准二:is well organized and well developed

1、元素排列

(1)二分法:①简单→复杂;②已知→未知;③次要→重要(说明说服为目的)。

(2)逻辑关系:①并列;②递进;③转折。

有力模式:

有力模式I 有力模式II 有力模式III

A

↓ 并列递进转折

B ↓ ↓ ↓

↓ 递进转折递进

C

例:

43. Why do you think some people are attracted to dangerous sports or otherdangerous activities? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

先想一个例子,在按照有力模式的构成去思考其他例子。本例采有力模式II 。

(1)the drive of money…………………(material )

①特技演员(stunt man);

②Photography ;正面

③Law breaker。

递进→(2)the desire pursuer happiness.(spiritual )

人的本性对危险的追求

转折→(3)无知(ignorance )…………………………………………负面

评分标准三:uses clearly appropriate details to support a thesisor illustrate ideas

一个反例——讲义P156。

教训:(1)不仅要列大纲,还要落实具体细节,然后查字典。前两步用平时使用的、朴素的、没有修饰的中文完成。

中文英文英文解释

…… …… …………

…… …… …………

…… …… …………

(2)考场上在表达时永不轻言放弃。一旦忘记例子,千方百计解

释清楚。

解释方法:中文,同位语从句+定语从句

评分标准四:displays consistent facility in the use of language

思维贫乏的人才会用华丽的辞藻。

评分标准五:demonstrates syntactic variety and appropriateword choice

逻辑思维

语言文字

三.185 题库的处理

压缩题库:TWE 写作的准备是系统工程,考验资源整合能力。

1、相关题目归类整理材料,整合论点。

㈠86→89→90→91;

㈡6→52→141(因此52 选择why 而不是how )→165evironment

例:

52. What change would make your hometown more appealing to people your age?

Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion.

Among diverse aspects that I want to change about my hometown is its environment.

→(why & how?此处选why )

①A good environment will make people happier. (100 words)

②A nice environment will make people healthier. (100 words)

③A perfect environment will make people more productive. (100 words)

Topic Sentence:TS , the improvement of which will make people happier, healthier, and even moreproductive. (主题句应当尽量暗示文章未来结构)

㈢36→70

例:

70. Some people think that the automobile has improved modern life. Others think

that the automobile has caused serious problems. What is your opinion? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

主题句应当值得解释、值得证明,故:

①汽车之类现代交通工具使市场上商品数量增多,方便流通;

②使商品价格降低;(运输成本降低,同种商品种类增加、竞争加剧)

③甚至,汽车交通工具对我国妇女地位独立有很大帮助。

最初想到:convenient & efficient,不值得解释、证明;

进一步问:so what?→人们活动范围增加,但仍不够;

进一步问:so what?→商品的活动范围增加→商品数量增加

因此,多想几步即可得到有效结论。

㈣15→18→46→179→93→62→103,基于ETS 出题的人群普适性和文化普适性。

① To be a good _____ , one should have the intelligence.happier, healthier,

②To be a good _____ , one should be humor. more productive

③To be a good _____ , one should be reliable.

理由、例子、思路的反复运用。

2、一些用母语都难写的题目的处理。

(1)最好不要同意的。往往是一些绝对的立场,观点要从绝对词出发。选反对或中间模式。 例:

37. Do you agree or disagree that progress is always good? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

本例选中间模式,组织采有力模式III 。方法是修正部分绝对化的表达和词汇。

①It’s true that progress is usually good.如交通、沟通、书写工具。

②However, it’s hardly true that progress is always good.

③In fact, progress in itself is nether good or bad. 技术的运用在人不再技术本身。

例:

53. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? The most importantaspect of a job is the money a person earns. Use specific reasons and examples

不能同意。绝对词:the most important。其他重要原因如stability 。

例:

54. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? One should neverjudge a person by external appearances. Use specific reasons and details tosupport your answer.

①确实有时会犯错;

②但有时也确实可以根据外表得到信息,如判断诚信;

③甚至,有时必须通过外表判断一个人。

(2)最好同意的。

没有绝对词,而且往往还有想关限定词。

例:

27. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? People shouldsometimes do things that they do not enjoy doing. Use specific reasons andexamples to support your answer.

两种分类:喜欢的/不喜欢的;有益成功的/无益成功的。需要做不喜欢但有益成功的。

另外的例子还有63、42 题等。

(3)只能反对的。

主要有第8、88、119、120 题。

分析方法:How come they have such an opinion? 即A→B 的因果关系是否过分简单化?

①A 不见得是B 的理由;

②A 不见得是B 的唯一理由;

② A 不见得是B 最重要的理由。

例:

8. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Television hasdestroyed communication among friends and family. Use specific reasons andexamples to support your opinion.

It’s true that people attend to spend lots ① of time in watching television.

②It’s also true that people spend less time in communication.

③However, it’s hardly true that television destroyed people’s communication.

④再写一个真正的理由,如工作压力、经济压力等:

It’s working stress rather than television…

例:

88. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Telephones and emailhave made communication between people less personal. Use specific reasonsand examples to support your opinion.Personal 有两种理解:①亲密;②个性化。只要前后理解一贯即可。

相比第8 题,可以忽略前3 点而扩张第4 点,如沟通成本的降低。

例:

119. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? People behavedifferently when they wear different clothes. Do you agree that different clothesinfluence the way people behave? Use specific examples to support your answer.

①有时候会影响人们的行为。服装影响心理;服装影响他人对你的态度。

②然而,服装不必然影响人们行为。

③什么是最重要的理由,如价值观(value system)。

例:

120. Decisions can be made quickly, or they can be made after careful thought. Doyou agree or disagree with the following statement? The decisions that peoplemake quickly are always wrong. Use reasons and specific examples to supportyour opinion.

①通常迅速作出的决定是错误的;

②不是生活当中每一个决定都是值得认真思考的;

③甚至很多人就是擅长短时间内作出正确决定。

(4)不能同意也不能反对的。It depends.

例:

20. It is better for children to grow up in the countryside than in a big city. Do youagree or disagree? Use specific reasons and examples to develop your essay.

It depends the child’s age.

5 岁之前,最重要的是家庭内部环境;

小学时,乡村更好一些;

高中时,城里更好一些。

慎用I think…,in my opinion 等词组:

①是废话;②不要站在读者对立面。

只有当你确知有不同观点时才可使用,然后必须用细节支持,如本文。

例:

32. Is it better to enjoy your money when you earn it or is it better to save yourmoney for some time in the future? Use specific reasons and examples to supportyouropinion.

It depends the money you earn.

2000/月,想存也impossible ;

20000/月,基本花不完;

200000/月,花掉。

例:

35. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Attending a liveperformance (for example, a play, concert, or sporting event) is more enjoyablethan watching the same event on television. Use specific reasons and examples tosupport your opinion.

要看是什么演出,不同情况作不同选择。

例:

49. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Face-to-facecommunication is better than other types of communication, such as letters, email,or telephone calls. Use specific reasons and details to support your answer.要看与谁沟通,老板、顾客、同事等均不同。

五.TWE 考试的准备

1、改写阶段。挑5-10 篇话题不重复的范文进行改写。

①改词。

②改句:简单句、并列句互改;句子成分、从句互改;正常语序,倒装互改。

③换一种说法。

④换个理由,换个例子。

改写的顺序:上午写,下午改,晚上背,第二天默。

2、创作阶段。写5-10 篇。

不限时完成,借助一切可以借助的力量。顺序与第一阶段相同。注重句法、时态等。

3、冲刺阶段。写5-10 篇。

限时25 分钟完成,最好早上9:00 写。下午用大量时间改写、背,第二天默写。

附录三句法多样性专题(Syntactic Variety)

1. 并列

a) 并列大量名词: n1, n2, n3, …, and n

i. A, B, C, … and other Xs…

ii. X, such [Y] as A, B, C…, …

History, philosophy, fundamental mathematics/calculus, and other abstract subjectshave to be learned from books, or primarily from books.

Some knowledge, such abstract subjects as history, philosophy, fundamentalmathematics/calculus, has to be learned from books, or primarily from books. It is necessary for everyone to read imaginative literature, such as poetry, novels, ormythology.

It is necessary for everyone to read poetry and other types of imaginative literaturesuch asnovels and mythology.

b) 并列名词性成份: n. + what/how/whether/if… [并列复杂句]

i. what = something that

ii. how = the way/manner in which Most parents educate their children merely by instinct rather than by proper pedagogy,and usually do not care about their relationship with children and how such neglectinfluences the future development of their children. Most students are eager to obtain knowledge, but they lack the sense of what is good, orwhat is necessary and how such a deficiency in the concept of viewing the situation as awhole would mislead them. c) 并列形容词性成份 i. a1 and a2 + n

ii. a1 + yet/but + a2 + n

iii. a1, a2 + n + that…

iv. a1, a2, so a3 that/as to…

a small town a small and peaceful town

a good teacher a good and very impressive teacher

a stupid decision a stupid and incorrigible decision

simple yet effective method

a direct and simple yet magically effective method

an irrational yet understandable decision

a fair and balance, yet undesirable decision

obvious yet not the most significant reason

expensive yet worthy course

slow yet indispensable process

A weird, entertaining, yet TRUE story....

All adult birds molt their feathers at least once a year, and upon close observation, one canrecognize the frayed, ragged appearance of feathers that are nearing the end of their usefullife.

[T0105-P02-L3]

Most students can hardly stand for his typically dry and dull lectures that would normallycontinue at least several quarters without giving any essential information.The impact that technology has had on our daily life and society in general, is undeniable.It will become even greater as computers get faster, smaller, smarter, and soinexpensive that virtually everyone will be able to own one.A class led by a lethargic teacher could be extremely dull, dry, and so boring that driveseverybody in the class into sleep.Learning in essence is a process that is time-consuming, painstaking, and so hard thatvirtually only persistent few can finally have a sense of real achievement.

1. 并列

d) 并列副词性成份

i. ad1 and ad2

ii. ad1 + yet/but + ad2

iii. ad1, ad2, prep.

iv. ad1, ad2, so ad3 that/as to…

A conscientious teacher always prepares his lecture carefully, intelligently, and with thefull consideration of all possible aspects concerning the subject.

1. 并列

e) 并列动词

i. 并列动词

a) …v1…, v2-ing…, v3-ing…

ii. 并列句子

b) …, and therefore/thus/consequently/subsequently…

c) not only/simply/merely… but also/…as well/even…

d) neither… nor…

e) not that… but that…

f) 并列从句: … that…, and that…[并列复杂句]

iii. that引导的宾语从句

iv. that引导的定语从句

v. that 引导的主语从句

An absent-minded teacher lacks drive to make class intensely focused, often preparingnothing in advance, wandering among random topics, thus wasting and killing times ofindustrial students.

主语相同的两个句子并列,―and‖对应的中文应该是―也‖。

Books keep records of thoughts and ideas, and are the major source from which peopleobtain knowledge. 书本记录着思想和理念,也.是人们获取知识的主要来源。

Books keep records of thoughts and ideas, and are therefore the major source fromwhich people obtain knowledge.

书本记录着思想和理念,所.以.也.是人们获取知识的主要来源。

History has to be vague and ambiguous, and is therefore/thus so interesting that many areobsessed, because people always cannot help trying to know the truth.

历史必然模糊含混,也正是如此,它才那样有趣以至于很多人都被深深的吸引,因为人们总是忍不住要追寻真理。

Chinese children unfortunately have few rights to make their own decisions, andsubsequently often have to do things that they do not enjoy doing at all.

很不幸孩子们很少有自作主张的权利,也因此常常只能去做自己不喜欢做的事情。

Modern vehicles have extended the range of people’s activity, and thus made much moregoods available to local markets.

现代交通工具延伸了人们活动的范围,也因此使市场上的商品数量增加了。

It is the nature of human that determines that people tend to trust themselves rather thanothers, and consequently they often misguide by their own feelings rather than reasons.

这是人性所决定的:人们倾向于相信自己而不是相信别人,也因此常常被自己的感觉所误导,而不是遵循理智。

Computers have not only brought convenience, but they have also made people learn more.

A perfect environment will not only make people happier and healthier, but it will evenmake people more productive.

Modern transportation vehicles such as automobiles have not only made more goodsavailable in the local markets, but they have also lowered the price of the products in themarkets.

3. 元素并列的其他手段

肯定句: also; as well; too; equally; of equal importance…

否定句: either, neither; nor

A good environment will make people happier.

A nice environment will also make people healthier.

A poor environment will not make people happier.

A bad environment will not make people healthier either .

或Nor a bad environment will make people healthier.

4. not… but

计算机不仅给人们带来了方便,还是人们学得更多。

Computers have not only brought convenience, but they have also made people learn more.

补充: 分割效果

1) 主语和谓语动词之间

2) 助动词和实意动词之间

3) 系动词和表语之间

only also…

not simply but … as well.

merely even…

not that… but that…

Not that emails or telephones have made people less personal, but that peoplethemselves have become less personal. One of several possible reasons is that peopleusually lack of adequate communicating skills.

A good environment will make people happier.

A nice environment will make people healthier as well.

A perfect environment will not only make people happier and healthier, but it willeven make them more productive.

2. 重复成分

a) 重复形容词

iii. … a. …, so a. that/as to…

b) 重复名词

iv. … n., n that…

In fact, history is interesting, so interesting that many are obsessed by it, because peoplealways cannot help knowing the truth.

Parents or other adults often give merely a casual answer to a serious question from acurious child, an answer that makes no sense at all, and might have unforeseeablenegative consequence in the future.

3. 从句

a) whether/if/what/how 做宾语

a) when/whenever; while + -ing/-ed

b) if/whether + adj.

c) what/how/when/where + to…

d) …, n + of + which…

深入研究转折

1. 形容词的转折并列

simple yet effective method

a simple, direct, practical yet magically effective method

irrational yet understandable decision

a fair and balance, yet undesirable decision

obvious yet not the most significant reason

expensive yet worthy course

slow yet indispensable process A weird, entertaining, yet TRUE story....

2. 包装(反复取非)

History is useful.

History is not useful.

It is commonly believed that history is not useful. However, this is a prevailingmisunderstanding. Hypocrites lie.

Hypocrites do not tell the truth.

Hypocrites do tell the truth when and only when they have convinced that by doing so theycan benefit. Hypocrites have many forms, but they have one thing in common: Hypocrites do tell thetruth when and only when they have convinced that by doing so they can benefit.

Although most people were hostile to the hypocritical behaviors, and believeprofoundly in the sacredness of truth and the inviolable freedom of those who dare to tellthe truth, they often betray their principle, dignity, and in effect become accompanies ofother hypocrites.

Hypocrites have many forms, but always have one thing in common: theyessentially have no principle at all. They tell the truth when and only when they feel thetruth is on their side, otherwise they would refuse rather than accept the truth, or remainsilence even choose to lie for the sake of their own safety if they find they arethreatened,even when that threat is at most potential.

It’s fortunate that our society always has a small portion of citizens who always tryto insist their principles and struggle to defend even when tremendous cost isanticipated.

When nearly everyone in this society had learnt to remain silence, Doctor Jiang Yan Yongstood out and shouted the truth about SARS. When nobody in this country is not afraid ofAIDS, Doctor Gao Yao Jie is

rushing around to help the helpless.

When most people in thiscountry believe money is everything, and should be made by whatever means is possible,Zhou Li Tai, as a lawyer, is persistently fighting for the weakest group who might beincapable of paying his consultant fee.

附录四例证表达法

大家最熟悉的当然是 "for example" 和 "for instance" 了。这两个表达

法后面可以接名词性成分或者句子。还可以说 "take … for example" ,比

如: "Let's take an extreme case for example. …"

用来修饰 "example" 的形容词很多,应该熟练掌握:

characteristic; classic; prime; representative; typical | excellent; fine;

good; impressive; magnificent; outstanding; perfect; superb; wonderful

| fascinating; interesting; intriguing; notable; remarkable; striking;

graphic; vivid; dramatic; extreme; spectacular; clear; obvious; simple;

straightforward; blatant; flagrant; glaring | familiar; famous;

well-known; notorious; common; rare; much-quoted; oft-quoted;

often-quoted | illustrative; helpful; illuminating; instructive; useful;

practical | concrete; hypothetical

这里面要是你有哪个词不认识,那就一定要背下来,然后写作文的时候用上,这样你就用了一些―别人可能不用的词汇‖,显得稍微superior 了一点。能够对 "example" 发出的动作有 : give; provide; contain; include; cite;draw; take (sth. a s ) ; f i n d 。而 "example" 能够发出的动作有 :

abound;demonstrate; illustrate; show 等等。

也可以直接让― 例子‖ 发出动作,比如这样的情况: The behavior ofMeerkats giving alarm calls

clearly/well exemplifies the existence ofaltruism.有很多个例子的时候,用这样的表达法: "A, B, C, and so on." 或者 "A,

B, C, and etc.."如果是口语表达,比较常用的有"..., and something like

that." 或者" . . . a n d s t u f f l ike that."

有的时候,你可能在举了很多个例子之后想说― ... 就更不用提了。‖ 或

者― 更不消说… … ‖ ,那用的表达法是:" not to men t i o n . . . " 或者 "let

alone..." 。

举例子的时候,可以先举几个例子然后再概括一下;或者反过来,先概括

之后列举几个实例。所使用的结构分别是: "A such (B) as X, Y and Z" ;

或者 "X, Y, Z, and other A" 。例如:

History, philosophy, fundamental mathematics, and other abstractsubjects can be learnt mainly from books. Some subjects, such abstract ones as history, philosophy, andfundamental mathematics, can be learnt mainly from books.

有的时候,举例子可能需要做出限定或者指定,那可以用 "as" 这个词,

例如:" A narrow, confining room, as in a prison or convent, wouldmake anyone nuts. "

能够用丰富的例子说明问题其实是一种能力,关键在于平时的刻意积累。

如果你有能力举出很多例子,那就需要这样的句型:

Examples abound in history/our daily life that…

Examples /instances are countless/innumerable/numerous

Stories abound of alcoho l i c s who flush their daily pill down the t o i l e t

or "cheek" it, only to dispose of it later.

Similar examples of "nuptial gifts" abound throughout the anima l

world.

History/Our daily life/This world abounds in examples which

demonstrate…

The list will go on.

The list would be endless if we try to make an inventory of such

examples.

The litany of drug damage goes on and on.

The list of profit-making, instinct-exploiting products is long.

Self-image can be indicated by a tone of voice that is confident,

pretentious, shy, aggressive, outgoing, or exuberant, to name only a

few personality traits.

如果你举的例子非常经典,又显而易见,不妨使用这个句型:

Remember that... (相当于― 记得… … 吧? ‖ )

If we want to predict how aggressively a man will guard his wife, we

need look no further than age. ( … 想想 / 看看就可以了)

Success requires a tenacious spirit and a drive to achieve. Nowhere is

this more apparent in the entertainment business. Thousands of

actors and actresses work tenaciously to have a career in the movies.

But without beauty or talent, tenacity i s n ' t always rewarded, and only a

few become stars.

用最近发生的事情做例子:

An instance occurred recently in which…

如果举的例子是― 轶事‖ 、― 传说‖ 、― 某个学说‖ 之类的,那可以用这 样的句型: Legend/Gossip/Rumor/Words/A theory/A saying has it that. . . ; As story goes: . . . ; That's how the story goes.; 或者Story

goes. . . ( g o e s 后面接完整的句子。例如: Story Goes Viral Alex Jones appears on CNN, poll says three-quarters plus support Sheen. )

有的时候要用一些想象出来的例子说明问题,那用这些词开头: Consider ; Imagine; Suppose; Say; Assume; 或者在这些词后面直接 加上一个宾语或者一个宾语从句,比如 "Imagine a person who is worrying about his future." 或者 "Suppose a person is worrying

about his future."

这样想象出来的 case ,还可以用 sometimes , in some cases, in

some specific cases 开头开始讲述。也可以用条件句型, "If…, …." 或 者 "When…, …." 以及, There are many cases in which… (有些情况 下… … ); There are moments when … (有些时候… … );We all have met the cases in which… (我们都会遇到… … 的情况); We all have moments when… (有些时候我们都会… … ) … …