四年级 其它 32767字 125人浏览 旺旺导航

1. 近年来,越来越多的童鞋在完成大学学业之前就选择离校。但是,并不是每个人都是比尔盖茨,乔布斯,能够在没拿到毕业证的情况下顺利求职。作文题目:

My View on College Students’ Quitting School

1. 越来越多的大学生退学

2. 出现这种现象的原因

3. 你如何看待这种现象

In recent years, more and more college students quit school ahead of schedule.Except the minority quitting for objective reasons like health problem,most students leave with the pursuit of an ideal career, as well as more experience and fortune.Several factors may contribute to its emergence. In the first place, some students think that the opportunity cost of spending four years on college campus is too high,and the job market competition is getting fiercer.

Therefore, when there’s a satisfying job available, it’s worth quitting.In the second place, some hold that the real world is a better school for them to get practical knowledge than traditional schools.Last but not least, the publicizing and popularity of some successful businessmen like Bill Gates and Steve Jobs,who didn’t finish school but ended up with a great fortune and achievement, set examples for the young generation emphasizing individuality and personality.

However, I don’t think it’s rational for college students to quit school.Armed with high education and more mature personality, better-prepared graduates can fight for their future more easily. In a word, college education pays off.

2. 央视曾经作过这样一个街头调查:你幸福吗。每个人对于幸福的定义都是不同的,幸福感的来源也不尽相同。那么,对于如何提升幸福感,你有哪些看法呢?


How to Enhance Our Sense of Happiness?

1. 人们对于如何提升幸福感有不同的看法2. 幸福感的提升不仅包括物质层面,也包括„„ 参考范文:How to Enhance Our Sense of Happiness?

Along with the improvement of living standards, people are no longer content with being fed and clothed adequately. They are more concerned about how to enhance their sense of happiness.

To a large extent, happiness depends on individuals’ understanding about it. For some people, happiness relies on material basis, without which they can't live comfortably and decently. For others, they believe that happiness has nothing to do with money. Thus to enhance happiness is not equal to improving one’s material living standards. Instead, people are supposed to confront their life with right attitude, to be active and grateful in order to have a happy life.

For my part, money does buy happiness, but only up to the point where it enables one to live comfortably. To boost one’s happiness not only needs the material but also the spiritual enrichment. It encompasses living a meaningful life, utilizing your gifts and your time, living with reflection and objective.


How to Be Successful in a Job Interview如何面试成功

参考范文:How to Be Successful in a Job Interview

To be successful in a job interview or in almost any interview situation, the applicants hould demonstrate certain personal and professional qualities.

Most likely, the first and often a lasting impression of a person is determined by the clothes he wears. The job applicant should take care to appear well-groomed and modestly dressed, avoiding the extremes of too pompous or too casual attire .

Besides care for personal appearance, he should pay close attention to his manner of speaking, which should be neither ostentatious nor familiar but rather straight forward, grammatically accurate, and in a friendly way.

In addition, he should be prepared to talk knowledgeably about the requirements of the position, for which he is applying in relation to his own professional experience and interests.

And finally, the really impressive applicant must convey a sense of self-confidence and enthusiasm for work, as these are factors all interviewers value highly.

If the job seeker displays the above-mentioned characteristics, he, with a little luck, will certainly succeed in the typical personnel interview.

近年来,手机的流行催生了一大批“低头族”,无论是在拥挤的车厢还是在与朋友聚会的时间,甚至在马路上,在阶梯上都会有人低头看手机,对此现象,你的看法是什么呢? The Impact of the Cellphone on Interpersonal Communication




The Impact of the Cellphone on Interpersonal Communication

The picture depicts a couple dating in the park. While the man just focuses on his cellphones, and doesn’t pay any attention to his partner or the nature beauty in the park. This picture reflects a common phenomenon in today’s society: people spend too much time with their cellphones and communicate less and less with the people around them.

Nowadays, the smart-cellphones become more and more important in our daily life. They have made our life more convenient. We are timely aware of the most latest news around or faraway from us.

However, everything has two sides. Except for all the advantages, the smart-cellphones also have brought some problems. First, when you’re focus on the cellphone, you may ignore the beautiful scene around you. What’s worse, you are just absorbed in your own small world, rather than share your happiness and sorrows with the family. You hardly talk with your family and the ones around you. You become indifferent to them.

All in all, let’s put down the cellphones and spend more time communicating with our family and friends face to face directly.


The traditional Chinese hospitality requires food diversity, so that guests will be full before eating up all the dishes. A typical Chinese banquet menu includes cold dishes served at the beginning, followed by hot dishes, such as meat, poultry, vegetables, etc. At most banquets, the whole fish is considered to be essential, unless various kinds of seafood have been served already. Today, Chinese people would like to combine Western specialties with traditional Chinese dishes. Therefore, it is not rare to see steak being served as well. Salad is gaining popularity, although traditionally the Chinese people generally do not eat any food without cooking. There is usually at least a bowl of soup, served at the beginning or in the end of the dinner party. Desserts and fruit usually mark the end of the feast.

作文:Practice is the Key to Knowledge

Nowadays almost every person has a clear notion about the importance of knowledge, with which we can make great difference to our world. However, the contribution of practice should also be awarded.

Practice is considered significant because it can turn abstract ideas into tangible results. Only through practice can we truly develop our own understanding about the essence of the new knowledge, or else the treasure of knowledge would still be words printed on papers. Moreover, the vilification of new theories requires us to focus more on the practical side, which helps people to learn better compared with the mechanical way of reading and memorizing. In addition, practice makes people acquire information in an active way, thus more innovative thoughts are likely to be generated in the process and then applied to make our future life more exciting.

As far as I am concerned, practice is essential for people to understand, to review and to optimize the information we receive. It is practice that produces enjoyable life and makes knowledge truly valuable.

作文The Impact of Interest on People’s Success

As is known to all, the success of a person needs the right guidance and interest is undoubtedly the best teacher. Even Albert Einstein, the world-renowned physicist, said, “I have no special talents. I am only passionately curious.” So it is high time that people explore and cultivate their own interest.

Passionate curiosity can be developed in one’s childhood or in one’s sixties, but once it is ignited, it can change people’s way of study, work and living. On the one hand, interest makes one’s pursuit of knowledge successful and enjoyable. For instance, the pianist Langlang, who plays piano with great love, is awarded a lot of prizes at home and abroad. On the other hand, curiosity helps to resolve difficulties constantly. A worker with curiosity is more likely to dig into the essence of the problem and thus accomplish more creative tasks.

I would like to end up with the famous educator Herbert Spencer’s words which I can’t agree more, “If the interest and enthus iasm among us are cultivated smoothly in the first place, most people will become talents or geniuses.”

2011年是中国城市化(urbanization )进程中的历史性时刻,其城市人口首次超过农村人口。在未来20年里,预计约有3.5亿农村人口将移居到城市。如此规模的城市发展对城市交通来说既是挑战,也是机遇。中国政府一直提倡“以人为本”的发展理念,强调人们以公交而不是私家车出行。它还号召建设“资源节约和环境友好型”社会。有了这个明确的目标,中国城市就可以更好地规划其发展,并把大量投资转向安全、清洁和经济型交通系统的发展上。 2011 witnesses the historic moment of the Chinese urbanization process. The urban population exceeded the rural population for the first time. In the next 20 years, it is estimated that about 350 million rural people would move to the cities. This scale of urbanization is both a challenge and an opportunity to urban transportation. The Chinese government has been promoting "people-oriented" development philosophy, which emphasizes that people should choose buses over private cars. It also calls for building "a resource-saving and environment-friendly" society. With this clear objective, Chinese cities will be able to better plan their development, and invest heavily on the evolution of a safe, clean and economical transportation system.

作文Being Great by Doing Small Things

There is no doubt that many people want to be great and successful, but only a few can climb to the top and be admired by the world. However, it doesn’t mean that most of us are losers. Actually

everyone can achieve high by doing small things in a great way.

We have to admit that there are something that we cannot accomplish right now, but it isn’t the excuse for us to stop trying. Being great needs time and patience, so only when all small accomplishments add up can many impossibilities gradually turn to possibilities. At least, one won’t regret for not making effort to achieve the goal. For example, one may doesn’t have the resources or training on how to be a world-class musician, but by constant practice of every short piece of music, he can still bring happiness, comfort and inspiration to his family members and friends, then this person is great in the eyes of the audiences.

Therefore, never cease the pace on the road to our dreams. As long as we stick to our goal and be serious to whatever related to it, we can be considered as great.


汉朝是中国历史上最重要的朝代之一。汉朝统治期间有很多显著的成就。它最先向其他文化敞开大门,对外贸易兴旺。汉朝开拓的丝绸之路通向了中西亚乃至罗马。各类艺术一派繁荣,涌现了很多文学、历史、哲学巨著。公元100年中国第一部字典编撰完成,收入9000个字,提供释义并列举不同的写法。其间,科技方面也取得了很大进步,发明了纸张、水钟、日晷(sundials )以及测量地震的仪器。汉朝历经400年,但统治者的腐败最终导致了它的灭亡。 Han Dynasty was one of the most important dynasties in Chinese history. There were many significant achievements during the Han Dynasty. It was the first to open its doors to other cultures. Foreign trade flourished during this period. The Silk Road initiated by Han Dynasty led all the way to the West Asia and even to Rome. V arious forms of art prospered, with the emergence of a lot of literature, history and philosophy masterpieces. 100 A.D. witnessed the completion of the first Chinese dictionary which included 9000 words, providing interpretation and various styles of writing. Meanwhile, technology had also achieved great progress. Paper, water clocks, sundials and earthquake detectors were invented. The reign has lasted for 400 years. However, the corruption of the rulers eventually led to its downfall.

When most people think of the word "education," they think of a pupil as a sort of animate sausage casing. Into this empty casing, the teachers 26 stuff "education."

But genuine education, as Socrates knew more than two thousand years ago, is not 27 the stuffings of information into a person, but rather eliciting knowledge from him; it is the 28 of what is in the mind.

"The most important part of education," once wrote William Ernest Hocking, the 29 Harvard philosopher, "is this instruction of a man in what he has inside of him. And, as Edith Hamilton has reminded us, Socrates never said, "I know, learn from me." He said, rather, "Look into your own selvers and find the 30 of truth that God has put into every heart, and that only you can kindle (点燃) to a 31."

In a dialogue, Socrates takes an ignorant slave boy, without a day of 32, and proves to the amazed observers that the boy really "knows" geometry--because the principles of geometry are already in his mind, waiting to be called out.

So many of the discussions and 33 about the content of education are useless and inconclusive because they 34 what should "go into" the student rather than with what should be taken out, and how this can best be done.

The college student who once said to me, after a lecture, "I spend so much time studying that I don't have a chance to learn anything," was clearly expressing his 35 with the sausage-casing view of education.

Part III Reading Comprehension (40 minutes)

Section A

Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read the passage through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter. Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on ,Answer Street 2 with a single line through the centre. You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.

Questions 36 to 45 are based on the following passage.

Innovation, the elixir (灵丹妙药 ) of progress, has always cost people their jobs. In the Industrial Revolution hand weavers were 36 aside by the mechanical loom. Over the past 30 years the digital revolution has 37 many of the mid-skill jobs that supported 20th-century middle-class life. Typists,ticket agents, bank tellers and many production-line jobs have been dispensed with, just as the weavers were.

For those who believe that technological progress has made the world a better place, such disruption is a natural part of rising 38. Although innovation kills some jobs, it creates new and better ones, as a more 39 society becomes richer and its wealthier inhabitants demand more goods and services. A hundred years ago one in three American workers was 40 on a farm. Today less than 2% of them produce far more food. The millions freed from the land were not rendered 41, but found better- paid work as the economy grew more sophisticated. Today the pool of secretaries has 42, but there are ever more computer programmers and web designers.

Optimism remains the right starting-point, but for workers the dislocating effects of technology may make themselves evident faster than its 43. Even if new jobs and wonderful products emerge, in the short term income gaps will widen, causing huge social dislocation and perhaps even changing politics.

Technology's 44 will feel like a tornado (旋风), hitting the rich world first, but 45 sweeping through poorer countries too. No government is prepared for it.


A. benefitsF) jobless K) rhythm

B. displaced G) primarily L) sentiments

C. employed H) productive M) shrunk

D. eventually I) prosperity N) swept

E) impactJ) responsive O) withdrawn

Section B

Why the Mona Lisa Stands Out

A. Have you ever fallen for a novel and been amazed not to find it on lists of great books? Or walked around a sculpture renowned as a classic, struggling to see what the fuss is about? If so, you've probably pondered the question a psychologist, James Cutting, asked himself: How does a work of art come to be considered great?

B. The intuitive answer is that some works of art are just great: of intrinsically superior quality. The paintings that win prime spots in galleries, get taught in classes and reproduced in books are the ones that have proved their artistic value over time. If you can't see they're superior, that's your problem.

It's an intimidatingly neat explanation. But some social scientists have been asking awkward

questions of it, raising the possibility that artistic canons (名作目录) are little more than fossilised historical accidents.

C. Cutting, a professor at Cornell University, wondered if a psychological mechanism known as the "mere-exposure effect" played a role in deciding which paintings rise to the top of the cultural league. Cutting designed an experiment to test his hunch (直觉). Over a lecture course he regularly showed undergraduates works of impressionism for two seconds at a time. Some of the paintings were canonical, included in art-history books. Others were lesser known but of comparable quality. These were exposed four times as often. Afterwards, the students preferred them to the canonical works, while a control group of students liked the canonical ones best. Cutting's students had grown to like those paintings more simply because they had seen them more.

D. Cutting believes his experiment offers a clue as to how canons are formed. He

reproduced works of impressionism today tend to have been bought by five or six wealthy and influential collectors in the late 19th century. The preferences of these men bestowed (给予) prestige on certain works, which made the works more likely to be hung in galleries and printed in collections. The fame passed down the years, gaining momentum from mere exposure as it did so. The more people were exposed to, the more they liked it, and the more they liked it, the more it appeared in books, on posters and in big exhibitions. Meanwhile, academics and critics created sophisticated justifications for its preeminence (卓越). After all, it's not just the masses who tend to rate what they see more often more highly. As contemporary artists like Warhol and Damien Hirst have grasped, critics' praise is deeply entwined (交织) with publicity. "Scholars", Cutting argues, "are no different from the public in the effects of mere exposure."

E. The process described by Cutting evokes a principle that the sociologist Duncan Watts calls "cumulative advantage": once a thing becomes popular, it will tend to become more popular still. A few years ago,Watts, who is employed by Microsoft to study the dynamics of social networks, had a similar experience to Cutting's in another Paris museum. After queuing to see the "Mona Lisa" in its climate- controlled bulletproof box at the Louvre, he came away puzzled: why was it considered so superior to the three other Leonardos in the previous chamber, to which nobody seemed to be paying the slightest attention?

F. When Watts looked into the history of "the greatest painting of all time", he discovered that, for most of its life, the"Mona Lisa"remained in relative obscurity. In the 1850s, Leonardo da Vinci was considered no match for giants of Renaissance art like Titian and Raphael, whose works were worth almost ten times as much as the "Mona Lisa". It was only in the 20th century that Leonardo's portrait of his patron's wife rocketed to the number-one spot. What propelled it there wasn't a scholarly re-evaluation, but a theft.

G. In 1911 a maintenance worker at the Louvre walked out of the museum with the "Mona Lisa" hidden under his smock (工作服). Parisians were shocked at the theft of a painting to which, until then, they had paid little attention. When the museum reopened, people queued to see the gap where the "Mona Lisa" had once hung in a way they had never done for the painting itself. From then on, the "Mona Lisa" came to represent Western culture itself.

H. Although many have tried, it does seem improbable that the painting's unique status can be attributed entirely to the quality of its brushstrokes. It has been said that the subject's eyes follow the viewer around the room. But as the painting's biographer, Donald Sassoon, dryly notes, "In reality the effect can be obtained from any portrait." Duncan Watts proposes that the "Mona Lisa"

is merely an extreme example of a general rule. Paintings, poems and pop songs are buoyed (使浮起) or

events or preferences that turn into waves of influence, passing down the generations.

I. "Saying that cultural objects have value," Brian Eno once wrote, "is like saying that telephones have conversations." Nearly all the cultural objects we consume arrive wrapped in inherited opinion; our preferences are always, to some extent, someone else's. Visitors to the "Mona Lisa" know they are about to visit the greatest work of art ever and come away appropriately impressed--or let down. An audience at a performance of "Hamlet" know it is regarded as a work of genius, so that is what they mostly see. Watts even calls the preeminence of Shakespeare a "historical accident".

J. Although the rigid high-low distinction fell apart in the 1960s, we still use culture as a badge of identity. Today's fashion for eclecticism (折中主义) "I love Bach, Abba and Jay Z" is, Shamus Khan, a Columbia University psychologist, argues, a new way for the middle class to distinguish themselves from what they perceive to be the narrow tastes of those beneath them in the social hierarchy.

K. The intrinsic quality of a work of art is starting to seem like its least important attribute. But perhaps it's more significant than our social scientists allow. First of all, a work needs a certain quality to be eligible to be swept to the top of the pile. The "Mona Lisa" may not be a worthy world champion, but it was in the Louvre in the first place, and not by accident. Secondly, some stuff is simply better than other stuff. Read "Hamlet" after reading even the greatest of Shakespeare's contemporaries, and the difference may strike you as unarguable.

L. A study in the British Journal of Aesthetics suggests that the exposure effect doesn't work the same way on everything, and points to a different conclusion about how canons are formed. The social scientists are right to say that we should be a little sceptical of greatness, and that we should always look in the next room. Great art and mediocrity (平庸) can get confused, even by experts. But that's why we need to see, and read, as much as we can. The more we're exposed to the good and the bad, the better we are at telling the difference. The eclecticists have it. 注意:此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。

46. According to Duncan Watts, the superiority of the "Mona Lisa" to Leonardo's other works resulted from the cumulative advantage.

47. Some social scientists have raised doubts about the intrinsic value of certain works of art.

48. It is often random events or preferences that determine the fate of a piece of art.

49. In his experiment, Cutting found that his subjects liked lesser known works

because of more exposure.

50. The author thinks the greatness of an art work still lies in its intrinsic value.

51. It is true of critics as well as ordinary people that the popularity of artistic works is closely associated with publicity.

52. We need to expose ourselves to more art and literature in order to tell the superior from the inferior.

53. A study of the history of the greatest paintings suggests even a great work of art could experience years of neglect.

54. Culture is still used as a mark to distinguish one social class from another.

55. Opinions about and preferences for cultural objects are often inheritable.

Section CPassage One

Questions 56 to 60 are based on the following passage.

When the right person is holding the right job at the right moment, that person's influence is greatly expanded. That is the position in which Janet Yellen, who is expected to be confirmed as the next chair of the Federal Reserve Bank (FeD. in January, now finds herself. If you believe, as many do, that unemployment is the major economic and social concern of our day, then it is no stretch to think Yellen is the most powerful person in the world right now.

Throughout the 2008 financial crisis and the recession and recovery that followed, central banks have taken on the role of stimulators of last resort, holding up the global economy with vast amounts of money in the form of asset buying. Yellen, previously a Fed vice chair, was one of the principal architects of the Fed's $ 3.8 trillion money dump. A star economist known for her groundbreaking work on labor markets, Yellen was a kind of prophetess early on in thc crisis for her warnings about the subprime (次级债) meltdown. Now it will be her job to get the Fed and the markets out of the biggest and most unconventional monetary program in history without derailing the fragile recovery.The good news is that Yellen,67, is particularly well suited to meet these challenges. She has a keen understanding of financial markets, an appreciation for their imperfections and a strong belief that human suffering was more related to unemployment than anything else.

Some experts worry that Yellen will be inclined to chase unemployment to the neglect of inflation. But with wages still relatively flat and the economy increasingly divided between the well-off and the long-term unemployed, more people worry about the opposite, deflation (通货紧缩) that would aggravate the economy's problems.

Either way, the incoming Fed chief will have to walk a fine line in slowly ending the stimulus. It must be steady enough to deflate bubbles (去泡沫) and bring markets back down to earth but not so quick thatit creates another credit crisis.

Unlike many past Fed leaders, Yellen is not one to buy into the finance industry's argument that itshould be left alone to regulate itself. She knows all along the Fed has been too slack on regulation of finance. Yellen is likely to address the issue right after she pushes unemployment below 6%, stabilizes markets and makes sure that the recovery is more inclusive and robust. As Princeton Professor Alan Blinder says, "She's smart as a whip, deeply logical, willing to argue but also a good listener. She can persuade without creating hostility." All those traits will be useful as the global economy's new power player takes on its most annoying problems.


56. What do many people think is the biggest problem facing Janet Yellen?

A. Lack of money.

B. Subprime crisis.

C. Unemployment.

D. Social instability.

57. What did Yellen help the Fed do to tackle the 2008 financial crisis?

A. Take effective measures to curb inflation.

B. Deflate the bubbles in the American economy.

C. Formulate policies to help financial institutions.

D. Pour money into the market through asset buying.

58. What is a greater concern of the general public?

A. Recession.

B. Deflation.

C. Inequality.

D. Income.

59. What is Yellen likely to do in her position as the Fed chief?

A. Develop a new monetary program.

B. Restore public confidence.

C. Tighten financial regulation.

D. Reform the credit system.

60. How does Alan Blinder portray Yellen?

A. She possesses strong persuasive power.

B. She has confidence in what she is doing.

C. She is one of the world's greatest economists.

D. She is the most powerful Fed chief in history.

Passage Two

Questions 61 to 65 are based on the following passage.

Air pollution is deteriorating in many places around the world. The fact that public parks in cities become crowded as soon as the sun shines proves that people long to breathe in green, open spaces. They do not all know what they are seeking but they flock there, nevertheless. And, in these surroundings, they are generally both peaceful and peaceable. It is rare to see people fighting in a garden. Perhaps struggle unfolds first, not at an economic or social level, but over the appropriation of air, essential to life itself.

If human beings can breathe and share air, they don't need to struggle with one another.

Unfortunately, in our western tradition, neither materialist nor idealist theoreticians give enough consideration to this basic condition for life. As for politicians, despite proposing curbs on environmental pollution, they have not yet called for it to be made a crime. Wealthy countries are even allowed to pollute if they pay for it.

But is our life worth anything other than money? The plant world shows us in silence what faithfulness to life consists of. It also helps us to a new beginning, urging us to care for our breath, not only at a vital but also at a spiritual level. The interdependence to which we must pay the closest attention is that whicl exists between ourselves and the plant world. Often described as "the lungs of the planet", the woods tha cover the earth offer us the gift of breathable air by releasing oxygen. But their capacity to renew the ai polluted by industry has long reached its limit. If we lack the air necessary for a healthy life, it is because we have filled it with chemicals and undercut the ability of plants to regenerate it. As we know, rapi deforestation combined with the massive burning of fossil fuels is an explosive recipe for an irreversibl disaster.

The fight over the appropriation of resources will lead the entire planet to hell unless humans learn t share life, both with each other and with plants. This task is simultaneously ethical and political because can be discharged only when each takes it upon herself or himself and only when it is accomplishe together with others. The lesson taught by plants is that sharing life expands and enhances the sphere c the living, while dividing life into so-called natural or human resources diminishes it. We must come t view the air, the plants and ourselves as the contributors to the preservation of life and growth, rathe than a web of quantifiable objects or productive potentialities at our disposal. Perhaps then we woulfinally begin to live, rather than being concerned with bare survival.


61. What does the author assume might be the primary reason that people would struggle with each other

A. To get their share of clean air.

B. To pursue a comfortable life.

C. To gain a higher social status.

D. To seek economic benefits.

62. What does the author accuse western politicians of?

A. Depriving common people of the right to clean air.

B. Giving priority to theory rather than practical action.

C. Offering preferential treatment to wealthy countries.

D. Failing to pass laws to curb environmental pollution.

63. What does the author try to draw our closest attention to?

A. The massive burning of fossil fuels.

B. Our relationship to the plant world.

C. The capacity of plants to renew polluted air.

D. Large-scale deforestation across the world.

64. How can human beings accomplish the goal of protecting the planet according to the author?

A. By showing respect for plants.

B. By preserving all forms of life.

C. By tapping all natural resources.

D. By pooling their efforts together.

65. What does the author suggest we do in order not just to survive?

A. Expand the sphere of living.

B. Develop nature's potentials.

C. Share life with nature.

D. Allocate the resources.


Part III Reading Comprehension (40 minutes)

Section A

Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read the passage through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter. Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.

Questions 36 to 45 are based on the following passage.

"That which does not kill us makes us stronger." But parents can't handle it when teenagers put this 36 into practice. Now technology has become the new field for the age-old battle between adults

en adults and their freedom-seeking kids.

Locked indoors, unable to get on their bicycles and hang out with their friends, teens have turned to social media and their mobile phones to socialize with their peers. What they do online often 37what they might otherwise do if their mobility weren't so heavily .38 in the age of helicopter parenting. Social media and smart-phone apps have become so popular in recent years because

teens need a place to call their own. They want the freedom to 39 their identity and the world around them.

Instead of 40 out, they jump online.

As teens have moved online, parents have projected their fears onto the Internet, imagining all the41 dangers that youth might face--from 42 strangers to cruel peers to pictures or words that could haunt them on Google for the rest of their lives.

Rather than helping teens develop strategies for negotiating public life and the risks of 43 with others, fearful parents have focused on tracking, monitoring and blocking. These tactics (策略) don't help teens develop the skills they need to manage complex social situations,44 risks and get help

when they're in trouble. "Protecting" kids may feel like the right thing to do, but it 45 the learning that teens need to do as they come of age in a technology-soaked world.


A. assess








I. mirrors





N. undermines

O. violent

Section B

Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived. You may choose a paragraph more than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.

Inequality Is Not Inevitable

A) A dangerous trend has developed over this past third of a century. A country that experienced shared growth after World War Ⅱ began to tear apart, so much so that when the Great Recession hit in late 2007, one could no longer ignore the division that had come to define the American economic landscape. How did this "shining city on a hill" become the advanced country with the greatest level of inequality?

B) Over the past year and a half, The Great Divide, a series in The New York Times, has presented a wide range of examples that undermine the notion that there are any truly fundamental laws of capitalism. The dynamics of the imperial capitalism of the 19th century needn't apply in the democracies of the 21st. We don't need to have this much inequality in America.

C) Our current brand of capitalism is a fake capitalism. For proof of this go back to our response to the Great Recession, where we socialized losses, even as we privatized gains. Perfect competition should drive profits to zero, at least theoretically, but we have monopolies making persistently high profits. C. E. O. s enjoy incomes that are on average 295 times that of the typical worker, amuch higher ratio han in the past, without any evidence of a proportionate increase in productivity.

D)If it is not the cruel laws of economics that have led to America's great divide, what is it? The straightforward answer., our policies and our politics. People get tired of hearing about Scandinavian success stories, but the fact of the matter is that Sweden, Finland and Norway have all succeeded in having about as much or faster growth in per capita (人均的 ) incomes than the United States and with far greater equality.

E) So why has America chosen these inequality-enhancing policies? Part of the answer is that as World War Ⅱ faded into memory, so too did the solidarity it had created. As America triumphed in the Cold War, there didn't seem to be a real competitor to our economic model. Without this internat~ competition, we no longer had to show that our system could deliver for most of our citizens.

F) Ideology and interests combined viciously. Some drew the wrong lesson from the collapse of the Soviet system in 1991. The pendulum swung from much too much government there to much too little here. Corporate interests argued for getting rid of regulations, even when those regulations had done so much to protect and improve our environment, our safety, our health and the economy itself.

G) But this ideology was hypocritical (虚伪的). The bankers, among the strongest advocates of laissez- faire (自由放任的 ) economics, were only too willing to accept hundreds of billions of dollars from the government in the aid programs that have been a recurring feature of the global economy since the beginning of the Thatcher-Reagan era of "free" markets and deregulation.

H) The American political system is overrun by money. Economic inequality translates into political inequality, and political inequality yields increasing economic inequality. So corporate welfare increases as we reduce welfare for the poor. Congress maintains subsidies for rich farmers as we cut back on nutritional support for the needy. Drug companies have been given hundreds of billions of dollars as we limit Medicaid benefits. The banks that brought on the global financial crisis got billions while a tiny bit went to the homeowners and victims of the same banks' predatory (掠夺性的) lending practices. This last decision was particularly foolish. There were alternatives to throwing money at the banks and hoping it would circulate through increased lending.

I) Our divisions are deep. Economic and geographic segregation has immunized those at the top from the problems of those down below. Like the kings of ancient times, they have come to perceive their privileged positions essentially as a natural right.

J) Our economy, our democracy and our society have paid for these gross inequalities. The true test of an economy is not how much wealth its princes can accumulate in tax havens (庇护所), but how well off the typical citizen is. But average incomes are lower than they were a quarter-century ago. Growth has gone to the very, very top, whose share has almost increased four times since 1980. Money that was meant to have trickled (流淌) down has instead evaporated in the agreeable climate of the Cayman Islands.

K) With almost a quarter of American children younger than 5 living in poverty, and with America

doing so little for its poor, the deprivations of one generation are being visited upon the next. Of course, no country has ever come close to providing complete equality of opportunity. But why is America one of the advanced countries where the life prospects of the young are most sharply determined by the income and education of their parents?

L) Among the most bitter stories in The Great Divide were those that portrayed the frustrations of the young, who long to enter our shrinking middle class. Soaring tuitions and declining incomes have resulted in larger debt burdens. Those with only a high school diploma have seen their incomes decline by 13 percent over the past 35 years.

M) Where justice is concerned, there is also a huge divide. In the eyes of the rest of the world and a significant part of its own population, mass imprisonment has come to define America--a country, it bears repeating, with about 5 percent of the world's population but around a fourth of the world's prisoners.

N) Justice has becom~ a commodity, affordable to only a few. While Wall Street executives used their expensive lawyers to ensure that their ranks were not held accountable for the misdeeds that the crisis in 2008 so graphically revealed, the banks abused our legal system to foreclose (取消赎回权) on mortgages and eject tenants, some of whom did not even owe money.

O) More than a half-century ago, America led the way in advocating for the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the United Nations in 1948. Today, access to health care is among the most universally accepted rights, at least in the advanced countries. America, despite the implementation of the Affordable Care Act, is the exception. In the relief that many felt when the Supreme Court did not overturn the Affordable Care Act, the implications of the decision for Medicaid were not fully appreciated. Obamacare's objective--to ensure that all Americans have access to health care--has been blocked: 24 states have not implemented the expanded Medicaid program, which was the means by which Obamacare was supposed to deliver on its promise to some of the poorest.

P) We need not just a new war on poverty but a war to protect the middle class. Solutions to these problems do not have to be novel. Far from it. Making markets act like markets would be a good place to start. We must end the rent-seeking society we have gravitated toward, in which the wealthy obtain profits by manipulating the system.

Q) The problem of inequality is not so much a matter of technical economics. It's really a problem of practical politics. Inequality is not just about the top marginal tax rate but also about our children's access to food and the right to justice for all. If we spent more on education, health and infrastructure (基础设施), we would strengthen our economy, now and in the future. 注意:此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。

46. In theory, free competition is supposed to reduce the margin of profits to the minimum.

47. The United States is now characterized by a great division between the rich and the poor.

48. America lacked the incentive to care for the majority of its citizens as it found no rival for its economic model.

49. The wealthy top have come to take privileges for granted.

50. Many examples show the basic laws of imperial capitalism no longer apply in present-day America.

51. The author suggests a return to the true spirit of the market.

52. A quarter of the world's prisoner population is in America.

53. Government regulation in America went from one extreme to the other in the past two


54. Justice has become so expensive that only a small number of people like corporate executives can afford it.

55. No country in the world so far has been able to provide completely equal opportunities for all. Section C

Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A. , B. , C. and D.. You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.

Passage One

Questions 56 to 60 are based on the following passage.

I'll admit I've never quite understood the obsession (难以破除的成见 ) surrounding genetically modified (GM) crops. To environmentalist opponents, GM foods are simply evil, an understudied. possibly harmful tool used by big agricultural businesses to control global seed markets and crush local farmers. They argue that GM foods have never delivered on their supposed promise, that money spent on GM crops would be better channeled to organic farming and that consumers should be protected with warning labels on any products that contain genetically modified ingredients. To supporters, GM crops are a key part of the effort to sustainably provide food to meet a growing global population. But more than that, supporters see the GM opposition of many environmentalists as fundamentally anti-science, no different than those who question the basics of man-made climate change.

For both sides, GM foods seem to act as a symbol: you're pro-agricultural business or anti-science. But science is exactly what we need more of when it comes to GM foods, which is why I was happy to see Nature devote a special series of articles to the GM food controversy. The conclusion: while GM crops haven't yet realized their initial promise and have been dominated by agricultural businesses, there is reason to continue to use and develop them to help meet the enormous challenge of Sustainably feeding a growing planet.

That doesn't mean GM crops are perfect, or a one-size-fits-all solution to global agriculture problems. But anything that can increase farming efficiency--the amount of crops we can produce per acre of land-- will be extremely useful. GM crops can and almost certainly will be part of that suite of tools, but so will traditional plant breeding, improved soil and crop management--and perhaps most important of all, better storage and transport infrastructure (基础设施), especially in the developing world. (It doesn't do much good for farmers in places like sub-Saharan Africa to produce more food if they can't get it to hungry consumers. ) I'd like to see more non-industry research done on GM crops--not just because we'd worry

less about bias, but also because seed companies like Monsanto and Pioneer shouldn't be the only entities working to harness genetic modification. I'd like to see GM research on less commercial crops, like corn. I don't think it's vital to label GM ingredients in food, but I also wouldn't be against it--and industry would be smart to go along with labeling, just as a way of removing fears about the technology.

Most of all, though, I wish a tenth of the energy that's spent endlessly debating GM crops was focused

on those more pressing challenges for global agriculture. There are much bigger battles to fight.注意:此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。

56. How do environmentalist opponents view GM foods according to the passage?

A. They will eventually ruin agriculture and the environment.

B. They are used by big businesses to monopolize agriculture.

C. They have proved potentially harmful to consumers' health.

D. They pose a tremendous threat to current farming practice.

57. What does the author say is vital to solving the controversy between the two sides of the debate?

A. Breaking the GM food monopoly.

B. More friendly exchange of ideas.

C. Regulating GM food production.

D. More scientific research on GM crops.

58. What is the main point of the Nature articles?

A. Feeding the growing population makes it imperative to develop GM crops.

B. Popularizing GM technology will help it to live up to its initial promises.

C. Measures should be taken to ensure the safety of GM foods.

D. Both supporters and opponents should make compromises.

59. What is the author's view on the solution to agricultural problems?

A. It has to depend more and more on GM technology.

B. It is vital to the sustainable development of human society.

C. GM crops should be allowed until better alternatives are found.

D. Whatever is useful to boost farming efficiency should be encouraged.

60. What does the author think of the ongoing debate around GM crops?

A. It arises out of ignorance of and prejudice against new science.

B. It distracts the public attention from other key issues of the world.

C. Efforts spent on it should be turned to more urgent issues of agriculture.

D. Neither side is likely to give in until more convincing evidence is found.

Passage Two

Questions 61 to 65 are based on the following passage.

Early decision--you apply to one school, and admission is binding--seems like a great choice for nervous applicants. Schools let in a higher percentage of early-decision applicants, which arguably means that you have a better chance of getting in. And if you do, you're done with the whole agonizing process by December. But what most students and parents don't realize is that schools have hidden motives for offering early decision.

Early decision, since it's binding, allows schools to fill their classes with qualified students; it allows admissions committees to select the students that are in particular demand for their college and know those students will come. It also gives schools a higher yield rate, which is often used as one of the ways to measure college selectivity and popularity.

The problem is that this process effectively shortens the window of time students have to make one of the most important decisions of their lives up to that point. Under regular admissions, seniors have until May 1 to choose which school to attend; early decision effectively steals six months from them, months that could be used to visit more schools, do more research, speak to current students and alumni (校友) and arguably make a more informed decision.

There are, frankly, an astonishing number of exceptional colleges in America, and for any given student, there are a number of schools that are a great fit. When students become too fixated (专注)

on a particular school early in the admissions process, that fixation can lead to severe disappointment if they don't get in or, if they do, the possibility that they are now bound to go to a school that, given time forfarther reflection, may not actually be right for them.

Insofar as early decision offers a genuine admissions edge, that advantage goes largely to students who already have numerous advantages. The students who use early decision tend to be those who have received higher-quality college guidance, usually a result of coming from a more privileged background. In this regard, there's an argument against early decision, as students from lower-income families are far less likely to have the admissions know-how to navigate the often confusing early deadlines.

Students who have done their research and are confident that there's one school they would be thrilled to get into should, under the current system, probably apply under early decision. But for students who haven't yet done enough research, or who are still constantly changing their minds on favorite schools, the early-decision system needlessly and prematurely narrows the field of possibility just at a time when students should be opening themselves to a whole range of thrilling options.


61. What are students obliged to do under early decision?

A. Look into a lot of schools before they apply.

B. Attend the school once they are admitted.

C. Think twice before they accept the offer.

D. Consult the current students and alumni.

62. Why do schools offer early decision?

A. To make sure they get qualified students.

B. To avoid competition with other colleges.

C. To provide more opportunities for applicants.

D. To save students the agony of choosing a school.

63. What is said to be the problem with early decision for students?

A. It makes their application process more complicated.

B. It places too high a demand on their research ability.

C. It allows them little time to make informed decisions.

D. It exerts much more psychological pressure on them.

64. Why are some people opposed to early decision?

A. It interferes with students' learning in high school.

B. It is biased against students at ordinary high schools.

C. It causes unnecessary confusion among college applicants.

D. It places students from lower-income families at a disadvantage.

65. What does the author advise college applicants to do?

A. Refrain from competing with students from privileged families.

B. Avoid choosing early decision unless they are fully prepared.

C. Find sufficient information about their favorite schools.

D. Look beyond the few supposedly thrilling options.


Part III Reading Comprehension (40 minutes)

Section A

Directions :/n this section,there is a passage with ten blanks.You are required to select one word for each blank#om a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage.Read the passage through carefully before making your choices .Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter .Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.You may not use any of the words in the barnk more than once.

Questions 36 t0 45 are based on the following passage.

Travel websites have been around since the l990s,when Expedia,Travelocity ,and other holiday booking sites were launched,allowing travelers to compare flight and hotel prices with the click of a Inouse.With information no longer 36 by travel.agents or hidden in business networks,the travel industry was revolutionized,as greater transparency helped 37 prices.

Today .the industry is going through a new revolution--this time transforming service quality .Online rating platforms-- 38 in hotels,restaurants ,apartments ,and taxis--allow travelers to exchange reviews and experiences for all to see Hospitalit) ."businesses are now ranked ,analyzed ,and compared not by industry 39 ,but by the very people for whom the service is intended--the customer.This has 40 a new relationship

between buyer and seller. Customers have always voted with their feet; they can now explain their decision to anyone who is interested. As a result, businesses are much more 41 , often in very specific ways, which creates powerful 42 to improve service.

Although some readers might not care for gossipy reports of unfriendly bellboys (行李员 ) in Berlin or malfunctioning hotel hairdryers in Houston, the true power of online reviews lies not just in the individual stories, but in the websites' 43 to aggregate a large volume of ratings.

The impact cannot be 44 Businesses that attract top ratings can enjoy rapid growth, as new customers are attracted by good reviews and 45 provide yet more positive feedback. So great is the influence of online ratings that many companies now hire digital reputation managers to ensure a favorable online identity.


A) accountable

B. capacity

C. controlled

D. entail

E) forged

F) incentives

G) occasionally

H) overstated

I) persisting

J) pessimistic

K) professionals

L) slash

M) specializing

N) spectators

O) subsequently

Section B

Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraph from which

the information is derived. You may choose a paragraph more than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter on ,Answer Sheet 2.

Plastic Surgery

A better credit card is the solution to ever larger hack attacks

A. A thin magnetic strip (magstripe) is all that stands between your credit-card information and the bad guys. And they've been working hard to break in. That's why 2014 is shaping up as a major showdown: banks, law enforcement and technology companies are all trying to stop a network of hackers who are succeeding in stealing account numbers, names, email addresses and other crucial data used in identity theft. More than 100 million accounts at Target, Neiman Marcus and Michaels stores were affected in some way during the most recent attacks, starting last November.

B. Swipe (刷卡 ) is the operative word: cards are increasingly vulnerable to attacks when you make purchases in a store. In several recent incidents, hackers have been able to obtain massive information of credit-, debit- (借记) or prepaid-card numbers using malware, i.e. malicious software, inserted secretly into the retailers' point-of-sale system--the checkout registers. Hackers then sold the data to a second group of criminals operating in shadowy corners of the web. Not long after, the stolen data was showing up on fake cards and being used for online purchases.

C. The solution could cost as little as $2 extra for every piece of plastic issued. The fix is a security technology used heavily outside the US. While American credit cards use the 40-year-old magstripe technology to process transactions, much of the rest of the world uses smarter cards with a technology called EMV (short for Europay, MasterCard, VisA. that employs a chip embedded in the card plus a customer PIN (personal identification number~ to authenticate (验证) every transaction on the spot. If a purchaser fails to punch in the correct PIN at the checkout, the transaction gets rejected. (Online purchases can be made by setting up a separate transaction code. )

D. Why haven't big banks adopted the more secure technology? When it comes to mailing out new credit cards, it's all about relative costs, says David Robertson, who runs the Nilson Report, an industry newsletter. "The cost of the card, putting the sticker on it, coding the account number and expiration date, embossing (凸印) it, the small envelope--all put together, you're in the dollar range." A chip- and.PrN card currently costs closer to$3,says Robertson,because of the price of chips.(Once large issuers convert together,the chip costs should drop.)

E)Multiply S3 by the more than 5 billion magstripe credit and prepaid cards in circulation in the US. Then consider that there’s an estimated$12.4 billion in card fraud on a global basis,says Robertson. With 44eo of that in the US,American credit.card fraud amounts to about$5.5 billion annually.Card issuers have so far calculated that absorbing the liability for even big hacks like the Target one is still cheaper than replacing all that plastic.

F)That leaves American retailers pretty much alone the world over in relying on magstripe technology to charge purchases--and leaves consumers vulnerable .Each magstripe has three tracks of information, explains payments security expert Jeremy Gumbley,the chief technology officer of CreditCall,an electronic.payments company.The first and third are used by the bank or card issuer .Your vital account information lives on the second track ,which hackers try to capture .“Malware is scanning through the memory in real time and looking for data.”he says.“It creates a text file that gets stolen.’’

G)Chip-and —PIN cards,by contrast,make fake cards or skimming impossible because the information that gets scanned is encrypted(加密) .The historical reason the US has stuck with magstripe , ironically enough .is once superior technology .Our cheap ,ultra •reliable wired networks made credit- card authentication over the phone frictionless.In France,card companies created EMV in part because the telephone monopoly was so maddeningly inefficient and expensive .The EMV solution allowed transactions to be verified locally and securely.

H)Some big banks,like Wells Far90,are now offering to convert your magstripe card to a chip —and-PIN model.(It’s actually a hybrid(混合体)that will still have a magstripe,since most US merchants don ’t have EMV terminals .)Should you take them up on it?If you travel internationally ,the answer is yes.

I)Keep in mind ,t00,that credit cards typically have better liability protection than debit cards .If someone uses your credit card fraudulently(欺诈性地) ,it's the issuer or merchant,not you,that takes the hit.Debit cards have different liability limits depending on the bank and the events surrounding any fraud.“If it’s available。the logical thing is to get a chip•and-PIN card from your bank.”says Eric Adamowsky。a c0.founder of CreditCardlnsider.eom .“l would use credit cards over debit cards because of liability issues.”Cash still works pretty well t00.

J)Retailers and banks stand to benefit from the lower fraud levels of chip-and-PIN cards but have been reluctant for years to invest in the new infrastructure(基础设施)needed for the technology , especially if consumers don’t have access to it.It ’s a chicken-and-egg problem..no one wants to spend the money on upgraded point.of .sale systems that can read the chip cards if shoppers aren 7t carrying them——vet there’s little point in consumers’carrying the fancy plastic if stores aren’t equipped to use them.(An earlier effort by Target to move to chip and PIN never gained progress.)According to Gumbley.there ’s a“you .first mentality.The logjam(僵局)has to be broken.”

K)JPMorgan Chase CEO Jamie Dimon recently expressed his willingness to do s0,noting that banks and merchants have spent the past decade suing each other over interchange fees--the percentage of the transaction price they keep —rather than deal with the growing hacking problem .Chase offers a chip- enabled card under its own brand and several others for travel .related companies such as British Airways and Ritz—Carlton .

L)The Target and Neiman hacks have also changed the cost calculation:although retailers have been reluctant to spend the$6.75 billion that Capgemini consultants estimate it will take to convert all their registers to be chip-and.PIN .compatible ,the potential liability they now face is dramatically greater. Target has been hit with class actions from hacked consumers.“It ’s the ultimate nightmare,’’a retail executive from a well.known chain admitted to TIME.

M)111e card.payment companies MasterCard and Visa are pushing hard for change.The two firms have warned all parties in the transaction chain--merchant,network ,bank that if they don’t become EMV—compliant by October 2015,the party that is least compliant will bear the fraud risk .

N)In the meantime,app-equipped smartphones and digital wallets--all of which can use EMV technology —are beginning to make inroads(侵袭)on cards and cash .PayPal ,for instance ,is testing an app that lets you use your mobile phone to pay on the fly at local merchants--without surrendering any card information to them.And further down the road is biometric authentication, which could be encrypted with,say ,a fingerprint.

O)Credit and debit cards,though ,are going to be with us for the foreseeable future,and so

are hackers, if we stick with magstripe technology.“It seems crazy to me,”says Gumbley,who is English ,“that a cuttin9。edge ‘technology country is depending on a 40•year-old technology .”That ’s why it may be up to consumers to move the needle on chip and PIN.Says Robertson :“When you get the consumer into a position of worry and inconvenience,that ’s where the rubber hits the road.”


46.It is best to use an EMV card for international travel.

47.Personal information on credit and debit cards is increasingly vulnerable to hackin9.

48.The French card companies adopted EMV technology partly because of inefficient telephone service .

49.While many countries use the smarter EMV cards,the US still clings to its old magstripe technologv .

50.Attempts are being made to prevent hackers from carrying out identity theft.

51.Credit cards are much safer to use than debit cards.

52.Big banks have been reluctant to switch to more secure technology because of the higher costs involved .

53.The potential liability for retailers using magstripe is far more costly than upgrading their registers .

54.The use of magstripe cards by American retailers leaves consumers exposed to the risks of losing account information.

55.Consumers will be a driving force behind the conversion from magstripe to F_.MV technology .

Section C

Directions :There are 2 passages in this section.Each passage is follm,rd by some questions or unfinished statements.For each of them there are four choices marked A.,B. ,C.and D..You should decide Dn the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. Passage One

Questions 56 t0 60 are based on the following passage.

The report from the Bureau of Labor Statistics was just as gloomy as anticipated.Unemployment in January jumped to a l6一year high of 7.6 percent,as 598 000 jobs were slashed from US payrolls in the worst single-month decline since December,1974.With l.8 million iobs lost in the last three months . there is urgent desire to boost the economy as quickly as possible .But Washington would do well to take a deep breath before reacting to the grim numbers.

Collectively ,we rely on the unemployment figures and other statistics to frame our sense of reality . They are a vital part of an array of data that we use to assess if we’re doing well or doing badly ,and that in turn shapes government policies and corporate budgets and personal spending decisions .The problem is that the statistics aren’t an objective measure of reality;they are simply a best approximation. Directionally ,they capture the trends,but the idea that we know precisely how many are unemployed is a myth.That makes finding a solution all the more difficult.

First ,there is the way the data is assembled.The official unemployment rate is the product of a telephone survey of about 60 000 homes.There is another survey,sometimes referred to as the“payroll survey,”that assesses 400 000 businesses based on their reported payrolls.Both surveys have problems. The payroll survey can easily double-count someone:if you are one person with

two jobs,you show up as two workers.The payroll survey also doesn’t capture the number of self .employed ,and so says little about how many people are generating an independent income. The household survey has a larger problem.When asked straightforwardly,people tend to lie orshade the truth when the subject is sex,money or employment.If you get a call and are asked if you ’re employed.and you say yes,you ’re employed.If you say n0,however ,it may surprise you to learn that.You are only unemployed if you’ve been actively looking for work in the past four weeks ;otherwise ,you are 。marginally attached to the labor force ”and not actually unemployed .

11le urge to quantify is embedded in our society.But the idea that statisticians can then capture an objective realin-im ’t just impossible .It also leads to serious misjudgments .Democrats and Republicans can and、“U take sides on a number of issues,but a more crucial concern is that both are basing major poticy decisions on guesstimates rather than looking at the vast wealth of raw data with a critical eye and an open mind.


56.What d0 we learn from the first paragraph?

A.1me US economic situation is going from bad to worse.

B.Washington is taking drastic measures to provide more jobs.

C.111e US government is slashing more jobs from its payrolls.

D.The recent economic crisis has taken the US by surprise.

57.、Ⅳhat does the author think of the unemployment figures and other statistics?

A.They form a solid basis for policy makin9.

B.The .y represent the current situation.

C.They signal future economic trend.

D.They do not fully reflect the reality.

58.One problem with the payroll survey is that________.

A.it does not include all the businesses

B.it fails to count in the self—employed

C.it magnifies the number of the jobless

D.it does not treat all companies equally

59.111e household survey can be faulty in that_________.

A)people tend to lie when talking on the phone

B.not everybody is willing or ready to respond

C.some people won’t provide truthful information

D.the definition of unemployment is too broad

60.At the end of the passage,the author suggests that_______.

A.statisticians improve their data assembling methods

B.decision makers view the statistics with a critical eye

C.politicians listen more before making policy decisions

D.Democrats and Republicans cooperate on crucial issues Passage Two

Questions 61 t0 65 are based on the following passage.

At some point in 2008,someone ,probably in either Asia or Africa,made the decision to move from the countryside to the city .This nameless person pushed the human race over a historic threshold ,for it was in that year that mankind became ,for the first time in its history ,a predominantly urban species.

It is a trend that shows no sign of slowin9.Demographers(人口统计学家)reckon that three —quarters of humanity could be city-dwelling by 2050,with most of the increase coming in the fast-growing towns of Asia and Africa.Migrants to cities are attracted by plentiful jobs,access to hospitals and education ,and the ability to escape the boredom of a farmer ’s agricultural life .Those factors are more than enough to make up for the squalor(肮脏) ,disease and spectacular poverty that those same migrants must often at first endure when they become urban dwellers. It is the city that inspires the latest book from Peter Smith.His main thesis is that the buzz of urban life.and the opportunities it offers for co-operation and collaboration,is what attracts people to the city , which in turn makes cities into the engines of art ,commerce ,science and progress .This is hardly revolutionaD-.tmt it is presented in a charming format.Mr .Smith has written a breezy guidebook ,with a series of short chapters dedicated to specific aspects of urbanity--parks ,say ,or the various schemes that

have been put forward over the years for building the perfect city .The result is a sort of high .qfuah 巧. tmttsually rigorous coffee-table book,designed to be dipped into rather than read from beginning to end . In the chapter on skyscrapers ,for example ,Mr .Smith touches on construction methods.the revolutionary invention of the automatic lift,the practicalities of living in the sky and the likelihood that. as cities become more crowded,apartment living will become the norm.But there is also time for brief diversions onto bizarre ground,such as a discussion of the skyscraper index(which holds that a boom in skyscraper construction is a foolproof sign of an imminent recession).

One obvious criticism is that the price of breadth is depth;many of Mr.Smith ’s essays raise as many questions as they answer.Although that can indeed be frustratin9,this is probably the only way to treat so grand a topic .The city is the building block of civilisation and of almost everything people d0;a guidelx)ok to the city is really,therefore ,a guidebook to how a large and ever —growing chunk of humanity chooses to live .Mr .Smith ’s book serves as an excellent introduction to a vast subject,and will suggest plenty of further lines of inquiry.


61.In what way is the year 2008 historic?

A.For the first time in history,urban people outnumbered rural people.

B.An influential figure decided to move from the countryside to the city.

C.It is in this year that urbanisation made a start in Asia and Africa.

D.The population increase in cities reached a new peak in Asia and Africa.

62.What does the author say about urbanisation?

A.Its impact is not easy to predict.

B.Its process will not slow down.

C.It is a milestone in human progress.

D.It aggravates the squalor of cities.

63.How does the author comment on Peter Smith’s new book?

A.It is but an ordinary coffee—table book.

B.It is flavoured with humourous stories.

C.It serves as a guide to arts and commerce.

D.It is written in a lively and interesting style.

64.What does the author say in the chapter on skyscrapers?

A.The automatic lift is indispensable in skyscrapers.

B.People enjoy living in skyscrapers with a view.

C.Skyscrapers are a sure sign of a city’s prosperity.

D.Recession closely follows a skyscraper boom.

65.What may be one criticism of Mr.Smith ’s book?

A)It does not really touch on anything serious.

B.It is too long for people to read from cover to cover.

C.It does not deal with any aspect of city life in depth.

D.It fails to provide sound advice to city dwellers.