英语作文开头篇
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高考作文的开头

• 春云初展即倾人——高考作文的开头技巧

一、开头写作“六式” 二、首段写作“九法”

云初展即倾人——高考作文的开头技巧

• 一篇文章通常可分为三个部分,即开头、正文和结尾。这三个部分安排是否得体,直接影响到文章的质量。 • 如果写一篇短文,开头的部分可占全文总长度的十分之一左右,最多也不要超过十分之二。有时候甚至可以将开头并入正文的第一部分。这样便看不出开头的一段,只是一两句话起了开头的作用。

考场作文的开头一般来说应尽量做到开门见山,用简单明白的叙述引出文章的话题,使读者了解文章要谈论什么,一下于引起读者的兴趣。而在短短一百来字的考场作文中,开头则不仅担负着吸引阅卷老师注意力,让阅卷老师了解文章话题和风格的重任,同时又是增强文章照应性的有效手段。一般来讲,可用下面几种方式来开头: • 1.说明事情发生的时间、地点或背景;

• 2.介绍主要人物;

• 3.描写一个紧张或有趣的场面;

• 4.写一个短的对话;

• 5.提出一个命题(即结论性的话);

• 6.提出一个问题;

• 7.提出一个错误或似是而非的说法;

• 8.举出一个实例或现象;

• 9.引用一个统计数字;

• 10.引用一个名言或格言。

其中前四个办法可用于叙事文和描写文,后六个办法可用于说明文和议论文。

• 【实例分析1】

记叙文:假设你是李华,正在美国探亲。2008年2月8日清晨,你目击了一起交通事故。警察局让你写一份材料,报告当时所见到的情况。

• 开头1:My name is Li Hua. I was visiting my relatives in the USA. On the morning of February 8,2008,I saw a traffic accident. I saw that an elderly man come out of the park on the other side of the street.

• 开头2: It was 7:15 on the morning of February 8, 2008. I was walking along Park Road towards east when an elderly man came out of the park on the other side of the street.

• 点评:开头2开门见山,直奔主题,交待了时间、地点、人物和事件。与开头1相比较,开头2对于时间、方位及方向给予了更加详细和精确的描述。

• 【实例分析2】

描写文:假设你是李华,你的英国笔友Bob 将于九月到你所在的城市的新华学校学中文,来信请你在学校附近为他找一套住房。请写信介绍房子的情况,并告知其住房面积为25平方米。

• 开头1:Dear Bob,

• I’m very glad that you will come in September, when I will meet you at the airport and we can do lots of things together.

• 开头2:Dear Bob,

• I’m so glad to learn that you’re coming in September. I’ve found a place for you. It’s a small flat of 25 square meters, with a bedroom, a bathroom, and a kitchen.

• 点评:开头1显然离题。而开头2在开头稍示欢迎,以示礼数,接着便惜墨如金,转入正题,清楚地交待公寓的情况。

• 【实例分析3】

说明文:假设你是李华,最近国内一家英文报纸正在讨论北京动物园是否应该迁出市区。以下是你所在班级讨论的情况。请你给该报写一封信,反映讨论结果。

• 开头1:Dear Editor,

• Recently, our class has had a heated discussion about whether the Beijing Zoo should be moved out of the city.

• 开头2:Dear Editor,

• I am Li Hua. I am from Beijing No. 4 High School. Recently I have known from your newspaper that you

are arguing about whether the Beijing Zoo should be moved out of the city.

• 点评:开头2交待的是作者自己的情况和从何处获知的信息,离题甚远。而开头1所交待的是讨论的主题。

与主题无关的信息应坚决摒弃,确保所写内容紧扣主题。

• 【实例分析4】

应用文:假设你是李华,你的美国老师Miss Morgan 要求你们明天下午去听一个有关美国历史的讲座。因你已答应明天下午3:30去机场接从法国回来的叔叔,所以你不能参加。请你写封信向Miss Morgan 请假。 • 开头1:Dear Miss Morgan,

I am your student Li Hua. You wanted us to attend the lecture on American history tomorrow afternoon. However I can’t go because I have to go to the airport to meet my uncle.

• 开头2: Dear Miss Morgan,

I am so sorry that I won’t be able to attend the lecture on American history tomorrow afternoon. My uncle is returning home from France, and I promised to meet him at the airport 3:30 tomorrow afternoon.

点评:

开头1的自我介绍显得多余,而且请假理由并没有交待清楚。开头2先表明写作目的,即关于听讲座请假事宜,后申述请假理由,让读者一目了然。

技巧总结1——高考作文开头“六式”

• 1.开门见山,揭示主题

• 文章一开头,就交待清楚文章的主题是什么。

如“How I Spent My Vacation”(我怎样度假) 的开头是: I Spent my last vacation happily.

又如:"Honesty"(谈诚实) 一文中的开头:

Honesty is one of the best virtues.An honest man is always trusted and respected.On the contrary, one who tells lies is regarded as a "liar",and is looked upon by honest people.

• 2.交代人物、事情、时间或环境:在文章的开头,先把人物、事件和环境交待清楚。例如"A Trip to Jinshan"

(去金山旅游) 的开头:

The day before yesterday my class went on a bus trip to Jinshan. The bus ride there took three hours. The long trip made us very tired, but the sight of the beautiful sea refreshed us.

• 3. 回忆性的开头

用回忆的方法来开头。例如“A Trip to the Taishan Mountain”(泰山游) 的开头是:

• I remember my first trip to the Taishan Mountain as if it were yesterday.

• 4.概括性的开头

即对要在文章中叙述的人或事先作一个概括性的介绍。如“The Happiness of Reading Books”(读书的快乐) 的开头:

People often say that gold and silver are the most valuable things in the world. But I say that to read books is more valuable than anything else, because books give us knowledge and knowledge gives us power.

• 5.介绍环境式的开头: 即开头利用自然景物或自然环境引出要介绍的事物。如“An Accident”(一场事故)

的开头是:

It was a rainy and windy morning. The sky was gloomy, the temperature was low, and the street was nearly empty. I was on my way back to school. Suddenly, a speeding car came round the corner.

• 6.交待写作目的的开头。 在文章的一开头就交待写作目的,如通过文章要表扬谁,批评谁,或说明一个

什么问题等。如 “Pollution Control” (控制污染) 的开头:

• In this article I shall draw your attention to the subject of pollution control.

技巧总结2——首段写作“九法”

• 1. 谚语法:

由于谚语一般已经被大家所接受,用谚语提出自己的观点也容易被读者所接受。

As the saying goes, "Money makes the mare go",(有钱能使鬼推磨)but there are many things we can't

buy with money, such as time and true love. … •

2. 定义法 定义法是通过对文章中的关键词做一些简单或正面或反面的解释,限定其范围,这样比较有利于引出主题。 •

"Practice makes perfect" is an old saying. It tells us that it does not matter if we are clumsy at doing something. As long as we keep on trying and practicing, we will do a good job in the end. •

3. 提问法 通过提出一个或一连串的问题,可以激发读者的兴趣,从而引出主题。 • a. Do you have many friends? Are they similar to you or different from you? Which kind of friends do you

prefer?

• b. What is a good student? Different people may have different answers to this question.

• 4. 概括法

概括法指先总结文章内容所涉及的现状,然后引出主题。

• In recent years, with the development of science and technology, the Internet has come into more and

more homes and is playing a more and more important role in our work and daily life. It has become a must to us, but at the same time, the Internet has also brought with it a lot of problems.

• 5. 故事法

故事法指用简单有趣的故事激发读者的兴趣,从而提出自己的观点。如:"Is Stress a Bad Thing?” One day, I was walking in the street,…"

• 6. 引语法

"Just as eating without liking harms the health, learning without interest harms the memory and can't be retained." From Vinci's words we can see how important it is to motivate the students in language learning. • 7. 调查法: 为了得到读者的认可,文章的开始可以引出调查数据等,借以提出主题,如下面“Can school

children start using the Internet?”的第一句话。

72 percent of the students interviewd in the survey firmly believe that …

• 8. 假设法

假设法是指通过假设提出一种选择,交代文章要涉及的问题,从而提出文章的主题。

Suppose you were offered two jobs, one is highly-paid but rather demanding, the other is less demanding, but poorly-paid, which would you prefer? …

• 9. 综合法

具体写作时,同学们不一定必要拘泥于一种方式,可以将上述方法综合起来。