图表式作文
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图表作文写作攻略

1. 文章结构组织

图表作文是英语写作中较为常见的题型之一,也是难度较大的一种写作题型。这类作文图表作文可以细分为表格,曲线图、柱形图和饼形图。除了上述共同要点,考生还应了解这四种图在写作方面的不同特点。

♦ 表格可以表示多种事物的相互关系,所以考生要对表格中所给出的大量数字进行比较分析,从中找出其变化规律。

♦ 曲线图常表示事物的变化趋势,考生应认真观察坐标系所显示的数据信息,并且密切注意交汇在坐标横轴和纵轴上的数字及单位。

♦ 柱形图用来表示各种事物的变化情况及相互关系,要求考生通过宽度相等的柱形的高度或长度差别来判断事物的动态发展趋势,因此考生应密切关注坐标线上的刻度单位及图表旁边的提示说明与文字。

♦ 饼形图表示各事物在总体中所占的比例及相互关系,旨在要求考生准确理解并阐述一个被分割成大小不等切片的饼形图所传达的信息。考生应清楚掌握部分与整体,部分与部分之间的相互关系,这种关系通常是以百分比的数字形式给出的。 从写作类型来看,基本上属于说明文与议论文的结合。要求考生围绕题目将有关信息转化为文字形式,考生应该具有一定数据分析和材料归纳的能力,同时会运用一定的写作方法。 一般以三段式写作方法来组织文章:

♦ 第一段:总结归纳信息反映的整体情况,点出主题思想;

♦ 第二段:回答第一段所得出的问题,对数字、数据等做出有条理的分析比较; ♦ 第三段:做出总结或给以简单的评论;

2. 写作步骤

1) 对比分析,寻找数据的变化规律。

考生应仔细研究题目以及提示信息,认清图表中的数字、线条、阴影等部分的变化趋势和走向,抓住其主要特点,然后根据图表所显示的中心信息确定内容层次以及主题句。图表作文通常要论述某个论点,因此,所提供的数据资料一般都是有规律的。但这些数据是一些零散的信息,需要我们总结和归纳。关键就是对比数据之间的关系,包括横向和纵向的比较,从中寻找规律。以下表1为例,作文题目为Changes in People's Diet in China.

1

这个表格里有20多个数据,乍一看让人眼花缭乱,其实从纵横向比较极有规律,横向比较,不难发现粮食(grain )的消费量逐年下降,5年间减少了4%,而牛奶(milk )的消费却逐年增加,肉类(meat )也在增加。从而归纳出一个总的变化规律:grain 的消费量在减少,而milk 和meat 的消费量在增加。

相对于表格,2002年6月CET-4(Student Use of Computer)的柱形图显得简洁明了,信息集中。该图的横向为日期(1990,1995,2000),纵向为大学生每周使用计算机的时间,只有一类事物,没有不同事物的比较。关键考虑计算机应用与日期的关系:随时间递增还是递减?或时增时减?柱形图清晰显示出这样一个变化特点:随着时间的推移,大学生越来越多地使用计算机。(见下图1)

图1

2) 筛选数据。

图表提供的资料数据是否需要在文中一一列出?应选择或忽略哪些数据?引用数据的目的在于更有力地阐述论点,就像论据有主次, 数据也应选择具有典型性和代表性的数据一样,不必一一列出。以表1为例,列出1986—1990每一年grain 的消费量只会显得繁琐、重点不突出。试试这句话:The percentage of grain consumption decreased gradually, from 49

percent in 1986 to 45 percent in 1990. 简明扼要地说明变化趋势是递减,两端数据49%和45%足已说明变化趋势;又如milk 和meat 的变化,都说明同一观点:人们的经济收入增加了,生活水平提高了,能够消费得起价格较高的肉奶食品。这样,描述milk 的变化后,就不必重复meat 的变化。简单一句“The same is the case with meat.”即可。或者直接计算出增加值或减少值,如:The amount of grain in people's diet has decreased by 4%. However, the amount of milk has increased 3% and that of meat has increased 4%.

总之,挑选有说服力的数据,主要是首尾两端数字或其增减值。考生应该仔细研究图表所给出的大量信息,从中选取最重要,最有代表性的信息,然后根据全文的主旨去组织运用另外,图表作文一般采用的时态为一般现在时,但如果图表中给出了具体时间参照,考生则应对时态进行相应的调整。

3) 强调数据间的关系,突出变化。

发现数据的变化规律,引用了典型数据,还须进一步强调突出这种变化,使论证更有力。以“Student Use of Computer”(图1)为例,有考生写到:But in 2000, students spent nearly 20 hours per week on the computer. This number was ten times that of 1990 and five times that of 1995. 像这样用倍数或比例更能说明问题,4) 列出各段主题句。

考生可以根据所给提纲或已知信息列出每段的主题句,为全文的展开做好铺垫。围绕主题句完成段落的展开。尽量做到主题明确、条理清楚、文字简练。无论写作或阅读都强调主题句(topic sentence )。主题句是能高度概括文章段落中心内容或主题思想的句子,通常位于段首或段尾。图表作文的主题句最好放在段首,使其既能提纲挚领又能起到衔接的作用,使文章思路清晰,过渡自然。

通常第一段的主题句都表示发生了某种变化,以图1为例:

(1) Great changes have been taking place in student use of computers from 1995 to 2000.

(2) In recent years, the time students using computers has increased greatly.

第二段分析引起变化的因素,主题句通常表示引起这种变化的原因有几点,例如:

(1) There are many factors that have stimulated this huge change.

(2) Such changes are mainly caused by two reasons.

第三段总结归纳或提出问题,很简短,例如:

There is sure to be a lot of problems in student use of computer, however...

5) 检查与修改。

对图表作文的检查与修改应着重看文章中所列举的信息是否与图表所显示的信息一致,资料是否恰当。

3. 必背模版句型

1) 总括性描述

♦ As can be seen from/in the chart/diagram/table/graph, great changes have been taking

place in ...

♦ The table shows a three times increase over that of last year.

♦ According to /As is shown in the table / figure / chart...

♦ It can be seen from the chart / diagram / table / graph / figures / statistics that... ♦ It is clear from the table that ...

♦ The survey shows/suggests that ...

♦ The two charts above tell us something about ...

2) 描述具体数据变化

♦ It has increased by three times as compared with that of...

♦ A has the highest sales figure in the three departments, followed by B and C. ♦ The figure of A is about twice as much as that of B.

♦ The rise lasted for two weeks and then began to level off in August.

♦ It accounts for 30% of the total population.

♦ The number of students has reached 500, indicating a rise of 20%, compared to last

semester.

♦ It picked up speed at the end of this month.

♦ The pie charts show the changes on... in some place in 2000.

♦ From this year on, there was a gradual declined reduction in the..., reaching a figure

of...

♦ There are a lot of similarities / differences between... and...

♦ It can be drawn from the chart that the proportions of A and B are going down,

though the falling level of the latter is a lot lower / higher than that of the former . ♦ The increase / decrease is more noticeable during the second half of the 5-year period. ♦ It falls from 50% in 2000 to 30% in 2004, and then the trend reverse , finishing at 58%

in 2005.

♦ The table shows the changes in the number of...over the period from... to...

♦ As can be seen from the graph, the two curves show the fluctuation of...

3) 分析原因

♦ There are chiefly two reasons for the changes.

♦ … is mainly caused by…

♦ This directly relates to the problem of (the world's food, housing, job shortage… ) ♦ What caused these changes? ...

♦ The reasons that caused changes are diverse. On the one hand, ...On the other hand, ... ♦ The rapid growth of… owes much to…

♦ lie in…

♦ lead to…

4) 总结归纳

♦ Through the analysis, we can draw a conclusion that ...

♦ In short, ...

♦ Steps should be taken to ...

♦ To solve the problem of ..., we ...

♦ From all the facts given above, we can see ...

♦ Taking the advantages and disadvantages together into consideration, I believe...

【注】此处前两点为图表类作文所特有,故作为重点讲解,后两部分与普通议论文重合,可在本话题点到为止

(1)图表作文中常用的词语

(2)图表作文中常用的句型

✩ According to /As is shown in the Table /Figure/Chart...

✩ It has increased by three times as compared with that of ...

✩ It can be seen from the chart/diagram/table/graph/figures/statistics that...

✩ From the table/figures/data/results/information above, it can/may be

seen/concluded/shown/estimated/calculated/inferred that...

✩ It accounts for 30% of the total population.

✩ The table shows the changes in the number of...over the period from...to... ✩ As can be seen from the graph, the two curves show the fluctuation(波动,

涨落,起伏) of...

4. 写作模板及范文

模板1

Nowadays, there are more and more… in some big cities . It is estimated that…(用具体数据

说明„„现象)

Why have there been so many…? Maybe the reasons can be listed as follows. The first one is that…(原因一) Besides, …(原因二) The third reason is…(原因三)

To sum up, the main cause of XX is due to…(主要原因) It is high time that something were done upon it. For one thing, …(解决建议一) On the other hand, …(解决建议二) All these measures will certainly reduce/enhance…

模板2

It is obvious in the graphic / table that the rate / number / amount of Y has undergone dramatic changes. It has gone up / grown / fallen / dropped considerably in recent years (as X varies). At the point of X1, Y reaches its peak value of Y1.

What is the reason for this change? Mainly there are … reasons behind the situation reflected in the graphic / table. First of all, …(第一个原因). More importantly, …(第二个原因). Most important of all, …(第三个原因).

From the above discussions, we have enough reason to predict what will happen in the near future. The trend described in the graphic / table will continue for quite a long time (if necessary measures are not taken.

范文1

The Escalation of Childhood Violence in America

The bar graph shows the increase in the number of adolescents, ages 10 to 19, who died from violence between 1987 and 1991. The number of children killed by guns, ages 10-19, rose from 1400 in 1987 to 2200 in 1991. The total number of U.S. homicide victims, ages 10-19, was 2100 in 1987, 2400 in 1988, and 2800 in 1991 respectively .

American adolescents committed so many murders for some of the following reasons . A five-year study by the American Psychological Association found that the average child has witnessed 8,000 murders and 100,000 other acts of violence on TV by the time he or she has completed sixth grade. Moreover , an astonishing number of children either own a gun or know how to get one. Therefore , the widespread availability of firearms makes it far too easy for kids to kill and to be killed.

To cure this social disease, we need to focus on prevention. The best place to begin is in the home where children should watch TV under the guidance of their parents so that they will not imitate anti-social acts. Next , to manage anger, kids should be taught to cool their emotions by dealing with a dispute nonviolently. For example, if they can’t reach an agreement, they should try to negotiate a compromise. The most pressing task, however, is to get guns away from children. By doing so, we can prevent children from accidentally shooting themselves or somebody else.

范文

2

The two line graphs make it clear that both oil wells have steadily increased their oil production in the past few years. At the Oyster Bay Field, the oil production in the first year was 453.6 barrels per day (B/D). After this oil well pumped 660.8 B/D in the second year, its production rose to 825.4 B/D in the third year. The oil production at Zuma Field in five years went up from 329.1 B/D to 927.8 B/D.

Zuma Field has greater potential. In terms of oil output, it takes only three years for Oyster Bay Field to accomplish a yield of 825.4 B/D, and four years for Zuma Field to reach 825.6 B/D. But high oil production at Oyster Bay Field may result in quick depletion of crude oil, even if it is located in a rich oil-bearing area. In contrast, the steady increase in oil production at Zuma Field signals that this oil well is a more promising one. If advanced equipment and technology are involved in the whole production process at Zuma Field, this oil well may stay productive for a long period of time.

Higher oil production and the sustainable development of oil resources should be well balanced. Crude oil is a non-renewable energy, so it is inappropriate for us to accelerate oil production without any limit. While we benefit from oil and oil products, we should avoid over-consumption and excessive exploitation. To save our “lack gold”, we should also find other substitutes. In brief, the balance between oil production and protection of oil resources is of vital importance to mankind on a long-term basis.

5. 练习

练习1

Read the following pie chart carefully and write a short paragraph to explain it.

The figures provided in the pie chart make it clear that overseas investment in Mainland China in 1997 came from four major sources. While the investment from Hong Kong and Macao amounted to 47.8%, the investment from Taiwan accounted for 7.3%. Investment from U.S. comprised 7.2% and investment from Japan made up 9.6 %.

练习2

Read the following pie chart carefully and write a three-paragraph essay. Your essay should meet the requirements below:

1. Describe each piece in the pie chart.

2. Offer possible explanations for the road accidents.

3. Take some measures to minimize road accidents.

From the pie chart, we learn that there are three major sources of road accidents. First, 48.8% of total accidents are attributed to motor vehicles. Second, 36% of the accidents originate from bicycles. Finally, pedestrians result in another 10% of the accidents.

Below are some possible causes of road accidents in China….

To minimize traffic accidents, we must devise some effective measures….