寒假英语作文
初二 记叙文 32767字 315人浏览 小月恶魔ing

毕 业 论 文

2014 届

(论肢体语言在小学英语教学中的应用) (On the Application of Body Language in English Teaching in

Primary School)

学 院:

英语学院 专 业:

英语 班 级:

英语1001班 学 号:

0307100120 学生姓名:

余雅平 指导教师:

俞晓丽 日 期: 2014年5月5日

浙江越秀外国语学院毕业论文(设计) 摘 要

I 摘 要

随着经济和技术的快速发展,全球化趋势越来越明显,国家间的交流日益紧密。随之而来的,英语作为一门世界语言,越来越收到人们的关注。所以对于英语教育也日益重视起来,特别是小学英语,因为它是学习英语的第一阶段,是基础。本文所探讨的是肢体语言在小学英语教学中的应用。将肢体语言运用在小学英语教学其意义在于肢体语言教学能增强学生们对所学内容的记忆,提高学生的学习兴趣,活跃课堂气氛等。与其他研究者不同的是本文所探讨的肢体语言教学不单单只体现在手势上,也体现在教师的眼神,表情,穿着等,范围更加广。并且进一步说明,在教学中使用肢体语言必须达到正确性,合理性。以及如何将肢体语言教学运用到教授听力,词汇等学习中,使学生更有效的学习英语。

关键词:小学英语;肢体语言;教学;应用

浙江越秀外国语学院毕业论文(设计) Abstract

II Abstract

With the rapid development of economy and technology, the trend of globalization

has become more and more obvious and the communication between countries has become more and more close. English as a world language has aroused more and more

people ‟s attentions, especially for primary English. Because primary English study is the

first step to study English. This paper studies on the application of body language in

English teaching in primary school. The importance of using body language in English

teaching in primary school lies in some reasons. First, using body language can enhance

students ‟ memories on teaching contents in classroom. Second, using body language in

English teaching can attract students‟ notice and inspire their interest. Third, using body

language in English teaching can improve atmosphere in English class and the

relationship between teachers and students. The difference from other researchers is that

this paper not only focuses on gestures from teachers, but also on the facial expressions

of teachers, the wearing of teachers and so on. The range of this paper studies is wider.

What ‟s more, when teachers use body language in English class, they should conform to

its principles, such as importance principle, normality principle, rationality principle,

comprehensiveness principle. And about how to use body language to teach listening,

vocabulary and pronunciation in order to help students learn English more effectively.

Key words: primary English; body language; teaching; application

浙江越秀外国语学院毕业论文(设计)

Table of Contents

摘 要 .......................................................................................................................... I Abstract ...................................................................................................................... I I

1 Introduction . ............................................................................................................. 1

1.1 Background . ............................................................................................................ 1

1.1.1 Background of body language ............................................................................. 1

1.1.2 The current situation of body language in primary English teaching . ................. 2

1.2 Research . ................................................................................................................. 3

2 The Current Situation of English Class in Primary School . ................................ 4

2.1 The current situation of teachers . ............................................................................ 4

2.2 The current situation of students . ............................................................................ 4

2.3 The opinion about English teaching in primary school from society . .................... 5 3 The Function and Significance of Using Body Language in Primary English

Teaching . ...................................................................................................................... 5

3.1 Attract students‟ notice and inspire their interest . ................................................... 5

3.2 Improve atmosphere in English class ..................................................................... 6

3.3 Deepen students‟ impressions of knowledge taught in class .................................. 6

3.4 Improve the relationship between teachers and students . ....................................... 6

4 The Principles of Body Language Used in English Teaching .............................. 7

4.1 Importance principle . .............................................................................................. 7

4.2 Normality principle . ................................................................................................ 7

4.3 Rationality principle ............................................................................................... 7

4.4 Comprehensiveness principle ................................................................................. 7

5 The Application of Body Language in Primary English Teaching . ..................... 8

5.1 The combination of body language with teaching methods ................................... 8

5.2The use of body language in vocabulary teaching................................................... 8

5.3 The use of body language in listening teaching . ..................................................... 8

5.4 The use of body language in pronunciation teaching ............................................. 8

6 Conclusion ................................................................................................................ 9

References . ................................................................................................................. 10

浙江越秀外国语学院毕业论文(设计)

1 1. Introduction

This paper stresses on the application of body language in English teaching in primary school. And the main purpose of this paper is to consider some current problems, concepts and their relationships between body language and English teaching in primary school. This paper bases on many famous articles from outstanding scholars, referring to their standpoints of body language in English teaching in primary school and comparing them suitably. I want to illustrate the application of body language in English teaching in primary school in several aspects as follows—background of body language, the current situation of body language in primary English teaching and English class in primary school, the relationships between body language and English class in primary school, the importance of body language, how to use body language in teaching and so on. I want to know and understand the body language in English teaching in depth to see more advantages of body language and disadvantages to overcome.

1.1 Background

In recent years, with the development of science and economy, we have entered into information age .And the world become a global village. China, as an opening-up country, communicates with other country closely whether in economy or culture. So it needs more and more people to learn English in order to keep up with the trend of main current, especially when they are young. As we all know, teaching is the most important way for students to learn anything. Thus, teaching English is of great significant in today‟s society, especially in English teaching in primary school. However, teachers and parents don‟t pay attention to English teaching in primary school in some areas of China, particularly in rural primary school. Teaching contains verbal communication and nonverbal communication, we all know that. In the class, teachers usually spread knowledge by using verbal language, but body language as a nonverbal communication plays a necessary role in language learning. However, traditional education often ignores body language in teaching. That‟s why we should pay attention to the body language in English teaching in primary school.

1.1.1 Background of body language

The “body language” first appeared in Bible and the works of Homer. In the early of Middle Age, body language played an important role in law. In the Renaissance Period, the definition of body language has a new direction. The important and scientific study of body language was in the 19th century. Andrea (1832) considered the birth certificate of the modern discussion of gestures. Wilhelm Wundt (1900) came up with an extensive discussion of gestures. In the twentieth century, many scholars put their sights to the field in education using body language.

Generally speaking, body language appears everywhere. Many scholars make the definition of body language with some common points. Of course, it is very hard to definite it. Most of them are like that Si Xing found that body language is a part of body

浙江越秀外国语学院毕业论文(设计)

2 language and we can also communicate without words among people.(Si Xing, 2009) In Liang Xiaohua ‟s opinion, body language refers to the gestures, poses, movements and expressions that a person uses to communicate (Liang Xiaohua ,2012). Body language refers to people with the help of facial expressions, behavior and manners in the process of communication (Zhang Huijun, 2013).

From these definitions about body language, I can find that the year is later; the definition is described more in detail. Maybe, during these years, body language doesn‟t just contain actions.

Body language generally includes six parts. They are gestures, physical contact, eye contact, similes and laughter, facial expression and the dress of teachers. For example, Gestures is the most important and the most changed actions among the body language. Some words and letters which through gestures teachers can strengthen their express feeling and students can also know the meanings of words and easily, such as letter “C”, word “rabbit”.

1.1.2 The current situation of body language in primary English teaching

China, as an opening-up country, communicates with other country closely whether in economy or culture. So it needs more and more people to learn English, when they are young. As we all know, teaching is the most important way for students to learn anything. Thus, teaching English is of great significant in today‟s society, especially in English teaching in primary school. In my hometown, primary students start to learn English at Grade Three in public school. However, primary students start to learn English at Grade One. In addition, many primary students often go to training institutions tutoring English on vacation. Twenty years ago, teachers and parents don‟t pay attention to English teaching in primary school in some areas of China, particularly in rural primary school. And it appears many problems needed to solve, especially in the countryside. First of all, the leaders in primary schools don‟t pay attention to English course and see them as a “minor course”. It takes less time to learn English comparing to Chinese and math. On the contrary, they think highly of Chinese and math. Because they also just know a little English. And most parents in the countryside never learn English before and know little about it .And they think it is useless for students in primary school. There are two reasons for it. On one side, primary students are too young to learn a foreign language and they may learn English hard. On the other side, people don‟t use English frequently in daily life. That is to say, they communicate with parents, friends, and teachers that everyone around them with the mother tongue. Second, the quantity, quality, ability of English teachers is the bottleneck of curriculum reform in primary school. What‟s worse, the teachers often use the single method of teaching making atmosphere dull in class. Therefore, the students reduce interests in English and fell boring. Third, students at the stage of primary school can‟t remember and master vocabulary clearly and easily. But in recent years, learning English is the mainstream and

浙江越秀外国语学院毕业论文(设计)

3 it is very popular around China. Traditional education often ignores body language in teaching. So now teachers should pay attention to the body language in English teaching in primary school. According to developments demands of primary students‟ physiological and psychological, the aim for En glish course is to stimulate students‟ interests in learning English, to cultivate their positive attitude towards English, to establish their confidence in English. And primary students have a good ability to imitate others by their words, actions. In recent years, more and more people have started to realize that body language plays a vital role in primary English teaching. However, after the investigation of Guoyong, 35.6% teachers only use single body language or often repeat gesture and facial expressi on, so that they can‟t convey study information correctly. And among these teachers, most are the old teachers. 32.2% teachers can‟t use body language in class properly. Some often scratch their ears and cheeks in embarrassment; some form a habit to put their hands before bosom when they talk to students, and others usually shake the thigh and this is a distraction from learning. 18.2% teachers can‟t pay attention to the application of body language. They never smile or laugh and never leave platform. It lacks interactions between students and teachers. The last teachers don‟t know the definition of body language and they can‟t understand body language in the round. They think body language only contain gesture or facial expression or eye contact. So now, teachers should pay attention to use body language in their class. What‟s more, they should use body language normatively.

1.2 Research

Before I wrote this thesis, I have done 50 questionnaires and ask some primary students whether they like their teachers using body language in their English class. The title of the questionnaire is „On the application of body language in teaching in primary school questionnaire‟. There are 50 students whose age from 8years old to 13 years old to take part in my survey. In my questionnaire, I set 5 questions. The first one is that‟ Do you like your teacher to use body language in teaching English? ‟ A. Yes. B. No. The second question is that „How many kinds of body language do you know and what are they?" The third question is that „Do you think which class English teachers can use body language to teach? ‟ The forth question is that „Do your teachers always use body language correctly?‟ The fifth question is that „Do you think that whether body language is necessary to use in teaching primary English?‟

Most students make similar answers. The students are younger, the students more like teachers to use body language in teaching. So 90% students whose age is from 8 to 10 think using body language in teaching primary school is very necessary and they like their teachers to use body language. Only 20% students don‟t care about whether teacher using body language or not. But many of them don‟t know body language correctly. In their minds, body language only includes gestures and physical actions. Some students say that they hate some actions from teachers, such as supercilious look.

浙江越秀外国语学院毕业论文(设计)

4 2. The Current Situation of English Class in Primary School

2.1 The current situation of teachers

With the increasing emphasis on English education, the demands for teachers from school are increasingly higher than before. Ten years ago, there aren‟t English teachers in primary school. If there are English teachers in primary school, they don‟t get the level of CET 6. The quantity, quality, ability of English teachers is the bottleneck of curriculum reform in primary school, for example, they have bad pronunciation. What‟s worse, the teachers often use the single method of teaching making atmosphere dull in class, especially in rural school. Therefore, the students reduce interests in English and fell boring. And some teachers do not pay attention to using body language in English teaching in primary school. And the teachers seldom smile. Nowadays, primary English teachers, most of them are English major in university, and they usually study English through films. They will try them best to make class active with the help of multimedia and teaching materials. Teachers will try their best to make students understood and let students master knowledge faster and more accurate. Teachers treat their students like their friends not their subordinates. Then, students will have interests and motivations in learning English. Thus, there will be a harmonious atmosphere in class. Body language is useful for students to form a habit of learning English. In addition, teachers need many qualities; of course, the most important is language proficiency. Beyond that they also need many teaching methods and teaching ways to make class interested. Besides, they need to realize what the students think about. They also need to respect students and concern them. And they need to be more „fun ‟ teachers to let primary students to love their classes. So they must know and use 4P‟s that are persistence, patience, praise and pro-activities. In addition, many private schools even employ foreigners to teach English in order to help students to mask listening and speaking.

2.2 The current situation of students

Students at the stage of primary school can ‟t remember and master vocabulary clearly and easily. However, according to developments demands of primary students ‟ physiological and psychological, primary students have a good ability to imitate others by their words and actions. Of course, students in primary school can‟t have patience like teachers, so that they can ‟t concentrate themselves on the whole class if their teachers can ‟t arouse their interests. But in the other side, nowadays, students in primary school before they go to school may have had contacted with English or learned English. So they have a very good foundation, especially the students living in city. In addition, in their minds, they are „adults ‟ and they need respect. Maybe the traditional teaching methods will make them feel disgusted. They want teachers to teach English interestingly and give them more surprises. In my research, 85% students want teachers to set games in class with the body language. And some students say that they care about whether the teacher has a standard pronunciation. As we all know, there are so many kinds of

浙江越秀外国语学院毕业论文(设计)

5 training institutions in downtown. Students should go to training institutions making up lessons. So in their minds, class is very silly and boring thing. What ‟s worse, some primary students are very rebellious, such as making noise in class, making trouble in the classroom and so on. The teaching methods should be diversified, such as body language, task-based activities, and play games. That will help students have more brain storming which is not only good at convergent thinking, but also divergent thinking.

2.3 The opinion about English teaching in primary school from society

The English course in primary school has been taught for many years, but it is took no account of by a large of people and schools. And it appears many problems needed to solve, especially in the countryside. First of all, the leaders in primary schools don't pay attention to English course and see them as a “minor course”. It takes less time to learn English comparing to Chinese and math. On the contrary, they think highly of Chinese and math. Because they also just know a little English. And most parents in the countryside never learn English before and know little about it .And they think it is useless for students in primary school. There are two reasons for it. On one side, primary students are too young to learn a foreign language and they may learn English hard. On the other side, people don ‟t use English frequently in daily life. That is to say, they communicate with parents, friends, and teachers that everyone around them with the mother tongue. But in recent years, some have been changed because of development of economy. People will communicate with foreigners more and more frequently. Parents and schools pay more attention to the primary English because it is the first step for students to learn English systematically. Most parents think students should learn listening and speaking well in primary school. There lie two reasons. On one hand, listening and speaking plays a key role in learning English. On the other hand, listening and speaking is the most important to communicate with others in daily life.

3 The Function and Significance of Using Body Language in Primary English Teaching

Body language is a bridge in conveying study information between teachers and students. And the functions of body language contains many aspects such as in improving students ‟ interest, in organizing teaching ,in creating a good atmosphere, in helping students understand in teaching content, in increasing the density of students‟ practice,

3.1 Attract students’ notice and inspire their interest

As we all know, elementary level students can not focus on a long time. If a teacher always speaks by himself or herself, primary students will easily trance. So teachers can use exaggerated body language to attract students ‟ attention, then students can concentrate themselves on teaching contents taught by teachers. At the same time, students will think about the meaning of the body language. So this process will transform students‟ unintentional attention to conscious attention. In classroom teaching,

浙江越秀外国语学院毕业论文(设计)

6 teachers should make good use of eye language. Because at the same time teachers can also know students' information with the help of eye contacts. Students will show that they are listening by looking at their teachers‟ eye or face, but if they raise their eyebrow, or have a puzzle face, it implies that they don‟t understand or show no interests to this content. Then teachers can use gestures or physical actions to arouse students‟ notice or use eye contact to encourage students. For example, when a student trances, teacher can walk beside him patting his shoulder in order to let him concentrate himself.

3.2 Improve atmosphere in English class

Atmosphere of a class is very important both for teacher and for students. Because the classroom atmosphere directly affects class effect and students' interest in study. Classroom atmosphere also reflects the students‟ good or bad reactions.

Sometimes, teachers use single methods which make atmosphere dull in English class. And students will think the class boring and can ‟t inspire interests. However, if teachers use body language in class, students may take active part in class activities. As a result, the atmosphere in classroom may be active and happy. For example, Teachers smiles or laughter which can often convey joy, satisfaction, friendship and approval to students. Teachers' smiling a lot in classroom seems that they are very kind to communicate. So teachers should make full use of smiles to encourage students to be active, confident and affirmative. In other side, teachers should keep a friendly relationship with students. Then after a few months, it is useful to improve atmosphere in English class. During this time, teachers should more use body language to show their kindness.

3.3 Deepen students’ impressions of knowledge taught in class

Body language can empower students ‟ memories on teaching content taught by teachers. Manuela found that teachers can strengthen their express feeling and students can know the meaning of words easily by gesture. After some studies, it was shown that enacting verbal material improves its accessibility in memory and in free recall tests, enacted items ”popped out ” of the mind without effort. That is to say, students can consolidate and deepen in the understanding of knowledge with the help of body language. What‟s more, with the help of body language, when students do the same body language, they will remind of the teaching content in English class. So when students do body language, they will review the content and this will not only make students happy, but also deepen students‟ impressions of knowledge taught in class.

3.4 Improve the relationship between teachers and students

As a good teacher, he or she must keep a good relationship with students. It is very important for teachers to do work and teach students both in teaching or other things. At the first step, teachers should show their kindness to students. Teachers treat their students like their friends not their subordinates. If teachers and students become friends, students will be very happy and make confidence in class. Then students will learn faster.

浙江越秀外国语学院毕业论文(设计)

7 So teachers ought to be helpers to students, but not masters in the learning process. To more use body language for teachers to students will enhance favorable impression in students ‟ minds. For example, when students feel hurt, teachers can hug them to comfort them. That body language done by teachers not only can help teachers conduct a good relationship with students, but also make the class atmosphere more harmonious. And teachers smile or laugh which can often convey joy, satisfaction, friendship and approval to students. Teachers' smiling a lot in classroom seems that they are very kind to communicate.

4. The Principles of Body Language Used in English Teaching

Although using the body language in teaching English in primary school has been arousing more and more teachers‟ attention, only a few teachers can use body language correctly.

4.1 Importance principle

This principle is the first and most important principle. In teachers ‟ minds, they should pay attention to body language in English teaching. This point is a prerequisite for using body language in English teaching. Many teachers usually don‟t take the initiative to use body language in English teaching. In a contrary, they are in passive of using body language. So if teachers decide to use body language in teaching, they must take body language in their heart.

4.2 Normality principle

Teachers should use body language in teaching by a correct way and should not appear some action such as cross their legs or cross their hands on their chests. Because these actions are not impolite and will let students feel bored and averse to teachers. Therefore, first as teachers, they must regulate their own behavior. That is to say, teachers should set a good example for students. Because primary school students are good at imitating others' words and actions.

4.3 Rationality principle

Teacher should understand the meaning of every b ody language and use them properly. For example, when students feel hurt, teachers can hug them to comfort them. When students are puzzle for teaching contents, teachers can encourage students to ask questions where they don‟t know by using ey e contact and they can also know the students‟ information at the same time with the help of eye language. Students will show that they are listening by looking at their teachers‟ eye or face, but if they raise their eyebrow, or have a puzzle face, it implies that they don‟t understand or show no interests to this content. Teachers should make full use of smiles to encourage students to be active, confident and affirmative.

4.4 Comprehensiveness principle

Because some teachers usually use body languages in single ways. For example,

浙江越秀外国语学院毕业论文(设计)

8 some teachers only use single body language or often repeat gesture and facial expression, so that they can‟t convey study information correctly. Some teachers never smile or laugh and never leave platform. It lacks interactions between students and teachers. They don‟t know the definition of body language and they can ‟t understand body language in the round. They think body language only contain gesture or facial expression or eye contact. So they can‟t use body language correctly.

5. The Application of Body Language in Primary English Teaching

5.1 Body language combination with teaching methods

Teachers using body language in teaching English can combination with natural approach. The natural approach is a method of language teaching developed by Stephen Krashen and Tracy Terrell in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Compared to the grammar, it is more focused on listening and speaking. When teachers teach English contents, they usually use teach them with pictures, actions, facial expression and so on. That is to say, using this way to learn English is the same as when they learn their first language. So when teachers are using natural approach to teach English, adding to body language will be more useful to students. Because using body language in natural approach can help students understand knowledge quickly and completely.

5.2 Using body language in teaching vocabulary

When students learn new words in class but teachers can not use real object to explain the meaning, body language is the most convenient method to make students understood the meaning. Because if let students do actions to explain the meaning of word, they must remember more quickly. The most importance is that the word remembered by doing acting will forget more slowly than the word known just by reading or listening.

5.3 Using body language in teaching listening

Teachers can use body language in this process, for example, students can do some actions which are related with the content they have listened, when they are in listening class. On the same time, teachers can get information from students‟ actions to find out that if the students understand the contents. Teachers often train students ‟ listening by their own speech in class or by playing tape.

5.4 Using body language in teaching pronunciation

Generally speaking, pronunciation is a term including many aspects besides sound and phonetic symbols, such as stress intonation and rhythm. When students are in pronunciation class, if they just learn pronunciation following the speech of teaching, then the class will be boring and the atmosphere of class will be dull. Then they will lack enthusiasm to learn. However, body language will help teachers to solve this problem and return an interesting class again. And teachers usually make them do some dialogue exercises in pairs. During this process, if students with the help of body language, they

浙江越秀外国语学院毕业论文(设计)

9 will speech more frequently and make the speaking lesson more natural. And they also can express the word that maybe they forget how to say or don‟t know that meaning of word, but they can make use the body language to make their peer understood. Then, students will like speaking in class with this happy atmosphere.

6. Conclusions

It will be like that English in primary school is the most important and most fundamental. However, some rural school doesn‟t be aware of the importance of English and lack experienced teachers. The quantity, quality, ability of English teachers is the bottleneck of curriculum reform in primary school in rural school. In some urban schools, the teaching methods of English teaching in primary school lack variety and innovation, so that primary students usually don‟t like English class and can‟t put their enthusiasm and energy into English learning. So these are all the current problems needed solving. Body language as a part of communication is an effective tool for both English learning and teaching. Because for teachers, it can help them keep a good image and make the class atmosphere interesting. If teachers use body language properly, the relationship between teachers and students will be more closely. In addition, application of body language in English class can improve the memory of contents taught by teachers for students and teach English contents more systematically and comprehensively. For students, they will arouse their interests in every English class and form a good habit in English learning. They will also understand and master English more conveniently with the help of body language. The paper focus on body language and English teaching in primary school and I will study according to background of body language, features of body language and English class in primary school, the relationships between body language and English class in primary school, the importance of body language, how to use body language in teaching and so on. If teachers can use body language correctly and properly in primary English teaching, they can promote a better English teaching and learning.

浙江越秀外国语学院毕业论文(设计)

10 References

[1] Kathleen M.B. (2013). Practical English Language Teaching: Speaking (pp158-185). Peking: Tsinghua University Press.

[2] Liang Xiaohua. (2012). Body Language in English Teaching. Overseas English.No.12

[3] Manuela, M.&Thomas, R.K.(2011). Body in Mind: How Gestures Empower Foreign Language Learning. Mind, Brain, and Education. V ol.5. No.4, 196-211.

[4] Smith, R. & Lafreniere, P. J. (2009). Development of Children Ability to Infer

intentions from Nonverbal Cues. J ournal of Social, Evolutionary and Cultural

Psychology . V ol.3.No.4, 315-327.

[5] Wangqiang. (2009). English Language Teaching in Primary School (pp22-35). Peking: Higher Education Press.

[6] Yuan Kong. (2009). Study on the Application of Body Language in College English

Teaching. Social Science. Vol.2. No.2.

[7] (美) 鲍登.(2012).看懂肢体语言[M].北京市:中国人民大学出版社.

[8] 毕继万.(2012).跨文化非语言交际[M].北京市:外语教学与研究出版社.

[9] 郭勇.(2011).小学教师体态语言的现状调查及思考[J].教学与管理:小学版(6):23-24.

[10] 李彩娜. 王振宏.(2011).教育心理学[M].北京市:高等教育出版社.

[11] 林艳. (2013. 浅议小学英语教学的特点[J].外语教育研究(28)

[12] 鲁平平.(2011).浅论英语教学中肢体语言的重要性[J].考试周刊(43):114.