图表作文
四年级 记叙文 14670字 180人浏览 xia6141065

考友总结:考研图画作文写作思路和段落框架

第1段:图表描述(共三句)

1-(1):总体描述图表:

1-(2):图画细节描述(通常一句,有时也可写两句)

1-(3):对图画中的文字进行翻译(一句,有时可省略这句)

第2段:图画寓意阐释兼论证(共五句)

2-(1):主题句:点出图画寓意, 数据表明的趋势 (一句)

2-(2)(3)(4):论证段 (注意:既然前面提出了观点,随后就应有相对应的原因/解释/论证,论证时还要注意和原因的之间的逻辑性,不要犯考生易犯的有论点无论据的错误,不要以观点论观点,忌用I think ,要注意论据的客观性) 论证段的思路:

【内容层面】论证的内容可以从如下角度选择其一

a 、谈背景:即问题或现象出现的政治/经济/文化/社会背景

b 、摆事实, 举例论证:即已经成为普遍社会现象的事实情况

c 、驳观点(欲扬先抑) :先摆出与自己观点对立的他人观点,随和在反驳中提出自己观点(因为欲扬先抑是英文写作习惯)

d 、讲原因:即分析问题或现象出现的原因,最好给出2-3点 , 从不同层面分析原因:主观的,客观的; 社会的, 个人的,直接的, 间接的, 要注意逻辑性, 条理要清晰, 分析透彻全面, 并注意要客观的分析原因, 不能都是自己的观点, 所以避免用I think 之类的话。

e 、论后果:即分析问题或现象导致的后果,最好利弊都写。

f 、统计或事实:可以虚构一些统计数据或调查结果,来使文章有理有据。只要数据不夸张,能自圆其说即可。 例:According to the recent survey/data/study/statistics by the Academy of Social Science 70% of……

第3段:结论兼建议措施段(共四句)

3-(1):结论句 (一句)

3-(2)(3):针对双方或从某一现象的正反两个方面提建议 (要针对你前面的原因提出有建设性的意见还要注意逻辑,因为英语是非常注重逻辑的)

3-(4):结尾或展望未来:可从正方两方面预测,如果我们怎么做就怎样,或者如果不怎么做又怎样。建议用排比句,倒装句、强调句,加强语气。

开头段要简明扼要,结尾段一定要强势。

常见图形

线形图line graph,柱形图bar graph, 饼形图pie chart, 示意图diagram , 流程

图flow chart, 组织结构图organization chart

描述图表的常用语句:

1. 描述上升趋势的用语:an upturn n. 回升, an upward trend n. 上升趋势, pick up/recover v. 好转, rocket/soar v. 骤升,leap v. 剧增,spiral upwards v. 陡升,sustain an increase v. 持续上升 reach a peak v. 达到最高点, reach/ come to/amount to v.合计,

2. 描述下降趋势的语句:spiral downward v. 剧降, a significant reduction n. 显著的下降, fluctuate v. 波动, bottom out v. 降到最低点, shrink/slide/slip v. 下降,slump/ collapse/dive v.暴跌

3. 描写平稳的用语:remain constant/stable, level off, reach a plateau

4. 描述上升和下降程度的用语:steeply 急剧地dramatically/ sharply/markedly 显著地 slightly 轻微地

5. 各类线条和轴的名称:solid line 实线, dotted line 虚线 , broken line 断续线, vertical/Y axis 垂直轴, horizontal/ X axis水平轴, point 坐标, shaded area阴影部分, wedge/slice扇形

第一句话社会热点类模板1: The two pictures illustrate (visualize,witness 目击,拟人手法) vividly ……. . In the left picture ……, while in the right ……..

From the two pictures we can sense a crazy tendency of ……. Aside from ……, another telling example is ……,which was so successful in that ……. . The pictures also make it obvious that we should …….

Admittedly, it is natural that …. Nevertheless, it is the responsibility of our

government and society to ……. In my opinion, what’s the more important is to ……. In short,……. 社会热点类模板2:

It goes without saying that this picture aims at revealing a current

problem; ……. In this drawing, e ven ……..

It seems to me that the artist is sending a message about the importance

of ……. Though the drawing is a little exaggerating, it is not rare for us to find ……. If we let this situation continues, it not only harms ……,but also prevents …….

Accordingly, we urgently call for … Though the government has already

taken pains to implement regulations, it still fails to ……. In my opinion, this problem should be urgently solved so as to protect benefits. I expect the

government will put forward more effective propositions as soon as possible.

社会热点类模板3:The cartoon reveals a very thought-provoking sc

ene . The artist purposefully exaggerates 。 . This picture reveals the in-depth problem of…… .

In fact,…… . There are two reasons for this. The first and perha ps most

important is that…… . The other reason is more serious from a practical point of view.…… . It owes to …… .

In my point of view, the trend goes quite against the genuine and original purpose of our … . What I want to emphasize by the above analysis is that.. . Therefore,…… I strongly contend that…… .

家庭关系类模板2:

There is a popular Chinese song, named "…… ", which encourages…… . From the facial expression of the picture we can read…… .

Sad as it is , this phenomenon does not occur rarely in today's society, for which we are responsible. For one thing ,…… . For another, …… . As a

matter of fact, the boosting economic development in China sadly and ironically witnesses a deterioration(恶化,堕落) of…… .

The above analysis is best exemplified by …… . In my opinion, awareness of it is elementary for paving the way towards success .

一、文章结构用词表达

1.分点一:分层论证

Basic to any understanding of the benefits we can get from______ is that __________/ First and foremost ;

On one hand_________, On the other hand_________;

Besides/ What’s more/ In addition ;

First of all/to begin with/above all ;

In the second place/in the second instance ;

in summary/ in short/ in conclusion ;

这一段主要说理,在分论点里可以加一些小的例子细节,重点是要用一些精华句子!

2.分点二:举例论证

Further lending credence to my position is that____________ (简单阐述/例子字不够就多讲点废话)

/I can think of no better illustration than the example of (典型例子)

/ A case in point is that (不是很典型)________,…..some expert s point out that...

/take ... for instance...

some statistics expose that...

一句话总结例子:As a result, 强调句/倒装句/表利弊的句型/反面论证如果没有会怎样。

3.让步段:

Agree or disagree: Admittedly,_____, to some extent, …… may directly or indirectly ____ /has its undeniable detriments.

For instance, _______

However, the valuable merits of_______ considerably overshadow the draw backs/ on no account________./

(经典正反对比结构)

二选一:Admittedly, BB also has certain merits which deserve some words here. For example, ____(字数不够就多讲点)

However ,BB 的缺点或AA 也可以做到. Compared with AA, (which 可以总结所有优点或针对BB 的一方面, )it pales.

4.结尾段:

Therefore, due to the above mentioned reasons, which sometimes correlate with each other to form an organic whole and thus become more persuasive than any single one of them(字不够了用), I reinforce my stand point that.

5.改写题目

Only via(by/through /with/when/after) ___can we__________;

only via(by/through /with/when/after) ___can we________;

and only via(by/through /with/when/after)___can we_______

Or

It is A that...;it is A that...;and it is A that... (不好写或显得累赘就不要了)

二、语言结构用词表达

1.基本句型

A. 因果

On account of/owing to/due to+ N

For the reason that/as/since/in that +句子

It is due to_the fact (it) that ……/It is due to +N that …(强调句).

eg:It is due to his persistence and perseverance that he eventually reached his acme.(强调句)

derive/arise/stem from 来源于

eg:His success derives from his persistence and perseverance.

Ascribe/attribute/ A to B 归结于

eg: His success can be ascribed/attributed to his persistence and perseverance

owe A to B

He owes his success to his persistence and perseverance

Account for /be responsible for

The lack of management can account for/ is responsible for the loss of the company/ the declines of the benefits.

B. 条件

If/on condition that/provided that/providing that/suppose that / as long as________

C. 让步

Despite the fact that/regardless of + N

2.经典句型

A. 倒装

Only via(by/through /with/when/after) __do/did/can we__

eg: Only after going to the beach of Hawaii will I know about American typical type of spending leisure time.

Hardly/Seldom/Scarcely can__

eg: Hardly can we imagine a world/our life without/devoid of

So +adj+主谓倒装+that__

Not only 主谓倒装 but also...

Not only do people care their economic needs, they but also want to m eet their spiritual needs.

On no account will I give up. 主谓倒装(决不.... )

B. 强调

It is/was....that/who(m)....

限定性副词probably/directly or indirectly/to some(a large) extent

3.经典中的经典

A. 排比

1)It is tourism that gives me the opportunity to know the culture of this dynamic, robust and alive country. It is computers that make our life diverse, convenient, dynamic/ vibrant, without which our life would probably pale.

2)Only via university education can we have systematic knowledge concern ing arts and science. Only via university education can we know the essence of symbiosis and collaboration. And Only via university education can we meet the demands of society and make our future success inevitable.

三、作文中的部分新颖表达及部分垃圾词汇的替代

作文中想要拿到高分,就必须有一些与众不同的词汇或表达方式,笔者在这里所说的“垃圾词汇”并没有贬低这些表达的意思,大家可以想象一个阅卷老师在阅几千份试卷的过程中就看到几千次相同表达,分数可想而知,所以如何取舍你懂的。

A 、认为(尽量避免的表达:I think/I believe/As far as I am concerned )

1. 别人认为:assume, argue, contend, main tain, hold the perspective that…

2. 我认为: I am inclined to the view that…(开头引入自己观点) I am convinced that…

I cling to a belief that…

B 、不同人有不同看法(Different people have different opinions )

People’s perspective s diverge on (在。。方面有分歧)this controversial issue.

There is no consensus (一致意见)among people concerning this

controversial issue.

C 、举例(尽量避免的表达for example/for instance/let me give you an exa mple )

1.A fitting/ telling/ apt/ striking example is that…

2.A case in point is that…(口语常用)

3.Further lending credence to my position is the example of …(***倒装)

4.This can be aptly/ well exemplified and illustrated by the case of+(名词)/the fact that + 句子

the following case

5.I can think of no better illustration than the example of…, who….(***最高级)

6.When it comes to music talent, eminent individuals ranging from Mozart to Beethvoen come immediately to me. (***此处也是细节)

7.To illustrate this, we need no look further than the case of……(举例)

8.Imagine/ Visualize/ Picture/ Suppose……

D 、迷恋,喜欢,上瘾(少用具体多用抽象)

I am invariably fascinated/ captivated/ enchanted with/ by…

Hardly can I resist the temptation of sth.

be obsessed with/by …

E 、数据引用

Statistic figures show/ manifest that…

Many surveys/ investigations 显示 that 越来越多的 universities have 重视 the credit system, which peobably would 带来不好的呃影像. (中文从一下中选词)

显示: manifest/ illustrate

重视: place a great/ considerable emphasis on

attach great importance to (不用换词)

on no account can sb. ignore/ turn a blind eye to sth. (***倒装) 越来越多的: a increasing number

带来不好影: exercise an unpredictable/ unforseable consequence(不好的结果都用这个) upon

F 、正反论证

It is not difficult to imagine that if……

It is modern technology that makes our life simple, healthy and dynamic/ vibrant/ fantastic/ active/ alive, without which our life would probably pale. Hardly can I imagine the world without the fascination of…… which…… G 、然而(引出事物的反面)

on the contrary/

conversely/

by contrast

H 、利弊及其影响

利:merits/benefits/advantage

弊:drawbacks/risks/disadvantage

弊:

exercise an unforseable and unprediactable/ adverse/ unfavorable/ deleteriou s consequence on…

undoubtedly and undeniably sound an alarm to sb.

put a enormous pressure upon

put a potential and probable threat on…

adversely affect…

undermine

利:

1. exercise a far-reaching influent on…

2. … undoubtedly serves as a catalyst/enzyme for…

3. play a(n)irreplaceable/crutial/indispensable role in…

4. lay a solid foudation for…

“As it vividly shown in the picture,... ...”相信大家对这句话都不会不熟悉吧?为什么所谓的模版用了会分数很低呢?

一、因为全国人民都在用它。二、大家都在用的话就看不出考生的真实水平了。三、阅卷老师一遍又一遍的看难道不会烦?

所以,这就是为什么用模版分数低的原因,也是为什么阅卷老师看到模版不愿意给分的一个因素。

而笔者这里所给出的并非纯粹的模版,而是在简单模版的基础上的更为新颖的表达方式,对于所谓模版,的确,用的人多了,老师就烦了,所以我们必须时刻自己总结出新颖的东西来避免。

而其中的方式之一就是使用更为高级的词汇和表达方式,说实话吧,在笔者的这个总结里,大部分的表达是雅思和托福作文表达,这样就能有效避免表达方式的雷同和词汇的陈旧。

写了这么相信大家应该能理解我想表达的意思,模版,没有统一的,没有固定不变的,只有不断更新和不断总结的新颖表达方式和词汇,这样的模版才是真正实用和能拿高分的模版。

最后,祝福大家都能运用好这个所谓的“模版”里的表达方式,在写作中拿下高分。

垃圾词汇的替代

1: help

典型例句:I"ll help you 。

替代语 accommodate/assist/ avail

E.g: I"ll endeavour to accomodate you 。

2: helpful

典型例句:Sth is helpful (to sb)

替代语 conducive/ time-honored 时代赋予的/ do credit to our forbears 继承先辈的优秀传统/ assisting

E.g Sth is conducive to sb 3: show

典型例句:as it shows in the picture 替代语 betray

4: think

典型例句: i think ---- ---- 替代语deem

5: ugly

典型例句: xxx is ugly

替代语 hideous

6: by the way

典型例句: by the way,... 替代语 incidentally....

7: because

典型例句: xxx because xxx

替代语 in that/in as much as E.g: xxx because xxx

8: consider

典型例句: We must consider xxx

替代语 allow for E.g : We must allow for xxx

9: much

典型例句: there has been a much increase in the world population 替代语 there has been a drastic increase in the -----

10: about

典型例句:it is about 250 times of that

替代语 it is approximately ---

11: buy

替代语purchase

在现代办公生活中,我们越来越多地会用到英语,用英语发邮件,用英语写记录报告,或者用英语向上司写假条。本期“乘兴走笔”就来跟大家讲讲如何用英语写假条,也就是提前请假的状况下应该怎样写假条。

首先,假条的上方还是应该按照半正式的格式写上如下信息:

To :假条是递给谁的

From :请假人

Date :写假条的日期(注意不是请假的日期)

Subject :写上请假字样

假条抬头范例如下:

To: Peter Stone, Manager

From: Lynn Chen, Financial Department

Date: April 2nd, 2004

Subject: Casual Leave of Absence

其次,在您的请假信第一段,应该开门见山但是有礼貌地提出请假。第一段要中心明确,写清您要请假的日期。

第一段范例如下:

Peter, I would like to know if I could ask for a casual leave of absence f or one day on April 4th, this Wednesday.

然后,在假条的第二段,您应该简单明了陈述请假的原因事由。注意叙述清楚明白,并尽可能表示对此带来工作不便的歉意。

第二段范例如下:

This morning I received a telephone call from my dentist, urging me to come to his practice for immediate treatment of my teeth. I have been

experiencing a stinging pain, depriving me of my sleep during the past fortnight. The situation could worsen, should infection occur.

Concerning my workload: As Wednesday is not as busy as the other week days, I think a one-day leave this Wednesday may be the best solution. I apologize for the inconvenience my absence from work may cause.

接着,在假条的最后一段,应写上您希望获得准假的句子,或者具体等候答复的时间。

最后一段范例如下:

Thanks. I will call you at 1:30p.m. or you can call me at any time. 私家车问题

Writing (图画提纲式议论文)

Directions: Study the picture carefully and write an essay of 160 -- 200 w ords in which you should

1)depict the present situation of private cars in Beijing,

2) offer reasons for or against owning private cars, and

3) give your own opinion on the issue.

北京拥250万辆汽车,其中私家车达到170万辆。

范文

With the living standards rising rapidly, more and more Beijing residents have cars of their own. Statistics show that in Beijing alone, there are 2500,000 cars, among which private cars add up to(=number) 1700,000. The increase i n the number of cars brings about a lot of problems, such as air pollution, noi se, traffic congestion and gas shortage. Then a controversy arises: whether priv ate cars should be encouraged in Beijing? People differ in their opinions on it. Many residents are against owning cars. According to them, private cars h ave to be limited in Beijing. The reasons for it are obvious. To begin with, ca rs contribute to air pollution. Beijing is now plagued by serious air pollution. I f people are to have cars of their own, the already contaminated atmosphere w ill get even dirtier. Secondly, private cars can be a terrible threat to the alread y heavy traffic in the city. If more cars are allowed onto busy streets, there w ill be more traffic jams, which is really a public hazard to all of us. Finally, c ars consume a large amount of fuel. Though China is rich in its oil resources, they are running out rapidly. All these facts allow of only one solution: to li mit the ever growing number of cars.

In my opinion, private cars should be discouraged in Beijing. In order to leave clean air, wide and safe roads and abundant energy resources to our desc endants, we have to say "No" to private cars. As far as the great demand for means of transport is concerned, we can develop mass transit to take the place of private cars. In short, Beijing does not need private cars.

参考作文地带译文:

随着生活水平的迅速提高,越来越多的北京居民拥有自己的汽车。统计数字表明,北京有250万辆汽车,其中私家车达到170万辆。汽车数量的增加产生了一系列问题,如空气污染、噪音、交通堵塞和汽油短缺。这样就引起了一场争论:北京是否应该鼓励私家车? 人们对这个问题有不同的想法。

许多人反对拥有汽车。在他们看来,北京必须限制私家车。原因很明显。首先,汽车加剧了空气污染。北京的空气严重污染。如果人们都要拥有私家车,已经污染的大气将变得更脏。其次,私家车可能对北京业已拥挤的交通状况是一个可怕的威胁。如果更多的汽车开上繁华的街道,交通堵塞将会更严重。这对我们大家来说确是公害。最后,汽车消耗大量燃料。虽然中国拥有丰富的石油资源,但是它们正在日趋减少。所有这些事实只能有一种解决办法:限止日益增长的汽车数量。

我的看法是北京不应该鼓励私家车。为把清洁的空气、宽阔安全的道路和富饶的石油资源留给子孙后代,我们对私家车只能说" 不" 。至于对交通工具的巨大需求,我们可以发展公交系统来代替私家车。总而言之,北京不需要私家车。