考试英语记叙文的写作方法
初一 记叙文 11699字 287人浏览 上善若水wang66

记叙文写作方法与技巧

一.概念

记叙文也称叙述文,是一种以记叙/叙述的手法来表述人物、事件的文体。常见的属于记叙文文体的作品有:故事、游记、通讯、新闻报道、历史、 人物传记、日记和回忆录等。记叙文大致可以分为两大类:以记人为主的记叙文和以叙事为主的记叙文。前者主要是对人物的经历、活动或者性格特征进行叙述;后者则是对某一事件的发生、发展过程和结果进行叙述。前者重在描述人物的活动,而后者则重在表述事件的发生发展过程。

二.六大要素

记叙文的写作要注意交待清楚六大要素,即时间(time)、地点(place)、 人物( character)、事件的原因(cause)、经过(process)和结果( effect)。

由于记叙文中所涉及的要素比其他文体相对要多、要复杂,所以整篇文章的结构安排就显得尤其重要,安排不合理就会使读者产生混乱的感觉。

记叙文的展开一般都是以时间为主线来组织所要叙述的内容,使读者对文章中的人物或事件有一个比较清晰的了解。记叙文的结构安排通常有三种形式:正叙、倒叙和插叙。正叙是英语叙述文中最常用的一种结构,即以人物出现、活动或事件开始发生的时间点作为记叙的起点,然后按照人物活动的展开、事件发生发展的自然顺序进行叙述。倒叙则是在文章的开头就交待人物活动或事件发展的结果。插叙这一结构在我们的英文写作中很少用到。

三.时态

记叙文讲述的大多是过去已经发生的活动或事件,因此用过去时态(一般过去时、过去进行时、过去将来时、过去完成时) 的作品比较多。但有时为了使文章显得更加真实、亲切和生动,也可以使用现在时态(一般现在时、 现在进行时、现在将来时、现在完成时) 。

四.人称

记叙某个人物的经历、活动或某件事情的经过离不开叙述的主体,即 “人称”。记叙文中的人称大多采用第一人称或第三人称的形式。第一人称的叙述主观色彩较浓,可以增强文章的真实感,有利于表述细腻的情感和细节的过程;第三人称的叙述可以超越时空的限制,更加真实、客观地表述某一人物活动或事件的全过程。

无论采用第一人称,还是采用第二人称,都要保持全文叙述主体的人称的一致性。注意:句式尽量要多变,不要通篇文章的句子都以人称代词开头,否则文章会显得单调沉闷。例如: I loved the book first because of its beautiful heroine. Then I found it a romantic love story which

greatly moved me. I now find that it is better taken as the growth story of a naive girl into a strong-willed woman. I realize that it is the essence of the book that attracts such big number of faithful readers.

这一段描述在用词、内容、逻辑上都不错,但过多地使用了以“I”开头的句子,使文章略显单调乏昧,给读者的印象大打折扣。

五.措辞与表达

六.记叙文写作技巧

1. 仔细审题,明确主题,选准素材,罗列提纲。

2. 写好第一段

3. 结构要清晰

4. 尽量多使用表示转折、顺接、因果和时间的连接词

如first 、second 、moreover 、for one thing…for another、on the one hand…on the other hand 等。这样既可以显示语言功底,又增强了记叙内容的连贯性和生动性。

5. 句式多样化

6. 字迹清楚,卷面整洁。尽量不涂抹。

7. 最后的2—3分钟,进行修改检查。

检查的内容不是“大处着眼”,而是“小处着手”;不是考虑作文的框架结构,而是留心 细枝末节。即检查:

(1) 动词时态是否正确(还包括主句与从句中的谓语动词时态) ;

(2) 主谓语是否一致;

(3) 代词的指代关系是否清楚;

(4) 动宾搭配是否合适;

(5) 用词是否错误;

(6) 冠词;

(7) 大小写、标点符号;

(8) 漏写、误写和拼写错误。

七.参考模版

例文1:

题目: An Eye-witness Account of a Traffic Accident

Directions: for this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic An Eye-witness Account of a Traffic Accident. You should write at least 120 words, and base your composition on the outline given below:

1) 车祸发生的时间及地点

2) 你所见到的车祸情况

3) 你对车祸原因的分析

例文2

A Special Social Practice

Everyone has an unforgettable memory and cannot remove it. 2. To me, it happened

4. It was a sunny day and things were awfully

⑧talking happily about a great success of a project. 7. It did not last very long, but it impressed me so deeply that I would

8.Whenever I look back on what happened that day, I think it is right to First of all, no one can deny its us to

八.常用句式及常用表达

1. 表示时间

after, after a short (long ) time (period), afterwards, as soon as, at last, finally, from that time on, immediately, lately, nowadays, recently, shortly, since, since then, then, when, while

2. 表示因果

accordingly, as a result (consequence), consequently, hence, so, therefore, thus

3. 平行结构(排比结构,较难)

九. 记叙文中常用谚语、格言(以字母为序)

1. A friend to everybody is a friend to nobody.

人人是朋友,没有真朋友。

2. A good book is a best friend who never turns his back upon you.

好书如挚友,永远不相负。

3. A good example is the best sermon.

身教重于言教。

4. A good fame is better than a good name.

美名胜于美貌。

5. All roads lead to Rome.

条条大陆通罗马。

6. All time is no time when it is past.

时间一去不复返。

7. All things are difficult before they are easy.

万事开头难。

8. Actions speak louder than word.

事实胜于雄辩。

9. A young idler, an old beggar.

少壮不努力,老大徒伤悲。

10. Caution is the parent of safety.

小心驶得万年船。

11. Fine feature makes fine birds.

人靠衣装,马靠鞍装。

12. Friendship is both a source of pleasure and a component of good health.

友谊既是快乐的源泉,又是健康的源泉。

13. Good company on the road is the shortest cut.

行路有良伴就是捷径。

14. Good advice is beyond all price.

忠告是无价之宝。

15. Love me little, love me long.

爱不贵深,而贵久。

16. Many hands make light work.

人多力量大。

17. Never do things by halves.

不要半途而废。

18. Nothing is impossible for a willing person.

苍天不负有心人。

19. No cross, no crown.

不经历风雨,不能见彩虹。

20. One lie makes many.

一次说谎,百次圆谎。

21. Time tries all.

路遥知马力,日久见人心。

22. Two heads are better than one.

三个臭皮匠,顶个诸葛亮。

引用名人名言及谚语时,可使用如下句型:

Just as the saying goers: “No garden is without weeds”, computer games have also some disadvantages.

正像常言所说:“没有无杂草的花园”,计算机也有一些不足之处。

As the proverb goes: “Every coin has two sides”. Television has both advantages and disadvantages. 正像谚语所说:“任何硬币都有两面”,电视既有优点也有缺点。

奋斗篇

1.Failure is the mother of success. 失败乃成功之母

2.Drops of water outwear the stone. 水滴石穿

3.Where there is a will, there is a way /

Nothing is impossible to a willing heart. 有志者事竟成

4.Genius only means hard-working all one’s life. 天才只意味着终身不懈的努力

5.No pain, no gain. 不劳不获

6.Diligence is the mother of success. 勤奋是成功之母

7.You have to believe in yourself.That’s the secret of success.相信自己,这是成功的秘诀

8.All things are difficult before they are easy. 万事开头难

9.God shuts one door but he opens another. 天无绝人之路。

10.If a thing is worth doing, it’s worth doing well. 凡值得做的事情都值得做好

11.Patient men win the day. 有耐心的人最终将会成功

12.A road of a thousand miles begins with one step. 千里之行始于足下

13.He who risks nothing, gains nothing. 不入虎穴,焉得虎子

14.If there were no clouds, we should not enjoy the sun. 吃得苦中苦,方为人上人

15.No sweet without sweat. 苦尽才能甘来

16.Water dropping day by day wears the hardest rock away. 水滴石穿

17.Adversity makes a man wise, not rich. 逆境出人才

18.Confidence in yourself is the first step on the road to success.自信是走向成功的第一步

19. Never say die. 永不言败

20. Rome is not built in a day. 冰冻三尺非一日之寒

21. Success belongs to the persevering. 坚持就是胜利

22.Genius is one percent inspiration and ninety-nine percent of perspiration.天才是百分之一的灵感加上百分之九十九的汗水

23.There are only two creatures, who can surmount the pyramids—the eagle and the snail.能够翻越金字塔的生物只有两种,一是雄鹰,一是蜗牛(毅力和天才在结果上有时候是相等的) 求知篇

1.Knowledge is power. 知识就是力量

2.Live and learn. 活到老,学到老

3.The more you know, the more you find you don’t know. 知之愈多,便觉知之愈少

4.Never teach a fish to swim. 切勿班门弄斧

5.Never too old to learn; never too late to turn. 学习不厌老,改过不嫌迟

6.Better sense is the head than cents in the pocket. 口袋里有钱不如头脑里有知识

7. The greatest artist was once a beginner. 最伟大的艺术家也曾是个初学者

8.It ’s never too late to learn. 活到老,学到老

9.A good book is a good friend. 好书如同挚友

10. All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy. 只会学习不玩耍,聪明孩子也变傻

11. A young idler, and old beggar. 少壮不努力,老大徒伤悲

12. By reading we enrich the mind, by conversation we polish it.读书使人充实,交谈使人精明

13. Experience must be bought. 吃一堑,长一智

14. There is no royal road to learning. 学问无捷径

15. Imagination is more important than knowledge. 想象力比知识更重要

16. The empty vessels make the greatest sound. 满瓶不响,半瓶咣当

17. If you don’t learn to think when you are young, you may never learn.如果你年轻的时候没有学会思考,那么就永远学不会思考

18.There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance.最有益的是知识,最有害的是无知

友谊篇

1.A friend in need is a friend indeed. 患难见真交

2.The only way to have a friend is to be one. 交友的唯一办法就是自己够朋友

3.Everything is good when new, but friend when old. 东西都是新的好,朋友还是老的亲

4.Friends agree best at a distance. 朋友之间保持一定距离最好

5.Welcome is the best dish. 诚心欢迎,胜过盛宴款待

6.A friend without faults will never be found. 没有十全十美的朋友

7.Birds of a feather flock together. 物以类聚,人以群分

8.Unity is strength. 团结就是力量

9.Many hands make light work. 众人拾柴火焰高

10. All the splendor in the world is not worth a good friend.人世间所有的荣华富贵都比不上身旁有一位好友

11. If you wish another to keep your secret first keep it to yourself.要让别人保守自己的秘密,首先得自己保密

健康篇

1.Good health is above wealth. 健康比财富更重要

2.Health is better than wealth. 家有万贯钱,不如身体健

3.An apple a day keeps the doctor away. 每天一苹果,医生别烦我

4.A close mouth catches no flies. 病从口出,祸从口入

5.A sound mind is in a sound body. 健康的心理寓于健康的身体。

6.A light heart lives long. 豁达者长寿

7.The first wealth is health. 健康是人生的第一财富

8.Early to bed and early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise.早睡早起会使人健康、富有和聪明

惜时篇

1.Never put off till tomorrow what may be done today.今日事,今日毕

2.Opportunity knocks at the door but once. 机不可失,失不再来

3.Time and tide waits for no man. 岁月不待人

4.Fools look to tomorrow, and wise men use tonight. 愚人指望明天,智者利用今晚

5.Time is money; time is life. 时间就是金钱,时间就是生命

6.Early birds catch the worms. 早起的鸟儿有虫吃

7.Busiest men find the most time. 最忙碌的人找得出最多的时间

8.All time is no time when it is past. 光阴一去不复返

9.An hour in the morning is worth two in the evening. 一日之计在于晨

10. Christmas comes but once a year. 佳节良辰,机会难得

11. Every day is not Sunday. 好景不常在,好花不常开

12. Better early than late. 宁早勿迟

13. Time fleets away without delay. 光阴似箭,一去不返

14. One can’t put back the clock. 时钟不能倒转

15. Tomorrow never comes. 我生待明日,万事成蹉跎

16. To save time is to lengthen life. 节约时间就是延长生命

17. To choose time is to save time. 合理安排时间就是节约时间

18. The more we do, the more we can do; the busier we are, the more leisure we have.事越做越会做,人越忙越有空

哲理篇

1.Actions speak louder than words. 事实胜于雄辩

2.All that glitters is not gold. 发光的不一定是金子

3.Better late than never. 迟到总比不做好

4.Bitter pills may have good effects. 良药苦口利于病

5.Don ’t put all your eggs in one basket. 不要孤注一掷

6.Haste makes waste./ Don’t try to run before you can walk. 欲速则不达

7.Said is easier than done. 说来容易做起来难

8.Experience is the best teacher. 经验是最好的老师 9.He who laughs last laughs best. 谁笑到最后,谁笑的最好 10. Honesty is the best policy. 诚实总是上策 11. Look before you leap. 三思而后行 12. Love me, love my dog. 爱屋及乌 13. One man’s meat may be another man’s poison. 兴趣爱好因人而异 14. Practice makes perfect. 熟能生巧 15. Pride goes before a fall. 骄者必败 16. Seeing is believing 眼见为实 17. Silence is golden. 沉默是金 18. What is done by night appears by day. 若要人不知,除非己莫为 19. Strike while the iron is hot. 趁热打铁 20. Hope for the best and prepare for the worst. 做最好的打算,做最坏的准备 21. Doing everything is doing nothing. 事事都做,一事无成 22. Beauty lies in lover’s eyes. 情人眼里出西施 23. A clean hand wants no washing. 身正不怕影子斜 24. Cut the coat according to the cloth. 量布裁衣 25. When in Rome , do as Romans do 入乡随俗 26. East or west, home is best. 在家千日好,出门时时难 27. Enough is as good as a feast. 知足常乐 28. Every man has his faults. 人孰能无过 29. Great minds think alike. 英雄所见略同 30. Justice has long arms. 天网恢恢,疏而不漏 31. No news is good news. 没有消息就是好消息 32. Every coin has two sides. 凡事都有利弊 33. Every man has his taste. 人各有所好 34. The spectator sees most clearly. 旁观者清 35. Unpleasant advice is a good medicine. 忠言逆耳利于行 36. Never judge from appearances. 人不可貌相 37. A bird in the hand is worth than two in the bush. 一鸟在手胜过双鸟在林 38. You cannot burn the candle at both ends. 蜡烛不能两头点,精力不可太分散 39. No man can do two things at once. 一心不可二用 40. A miss is as good as a mile. 失之毫厘,谬以千里 41. A stitch in time saves nine. 未雨绸缪 42. Well begun is half done. 良好的开端是成功的一半

43. Pride goes before, and shame comes after. 骄傲使人落后

首段交代主题

It was the most exciting moment that I have ever experienced.

All through my senior high school, I couldn’t forget „

In the years that followed the event frequently floated in my mind/often recurred to my memory/kept haunting me.

Last week, when I was on my way home something terrible happened.

I quickly turned around, just in time to see the whole process of the accident.

补充交代时间

The event took place/happened/occurred in the early morning.

The whole story happened the (first) day I entered the senior high school.

Body

(一)作者心理活动的描写

I could hardly believe my eyes.

I felt as if I were on top of the world.

I was completely shocked.

I was bursting with joy.

(二)人物外貌和性格的描写

He is of medium height.

He is good-looking/ordinary-looking.

She is plump/slim, with fair skin and curly hair.

He looks handsome in a sports suit/blue jeans.

He is of mild/bad temper.

At first glance, you would say he is the perfect image of an obedient boy, but deep down, he is not that way at all.

(三)物体的描写

It comes in a variety of colors/shapes.

It consists of several integrated parts.

It is shaped like a circle.

It is flat in shape and small in size.

Attached to the bottom is„

(四)景物的描写

There is a wonderful array of flowers along the street.

The air is filled with the scent of roses.

The trees stood there on guard for generations, with branches reaching out like a canopy over the road.

I feel miserably insignificant approaching the mountain.

Even judging by modern standards, the town was large in population.

The campus has a unique atmosphere.